early 15c., offendour, "a lawbreaker; a sinner," agent noun from offend (v.). Earlier was offendour (early 15c.), from Anglo-French.
military punishment in which offender runs between rows of men who beat him in passing; see gantlet.
"one who repeats or rehearses," in any sense, 1570s, agent noun from repeat (v.). As a type of watch, by 1725; as "a repeating firearm," from 1849; as "a frequent offender" from 1868. Also in U.S. history, "one who votes more than once in the same election" (1868).
early 15c., "publish a 'thundering' denunciation; hurl condemnation (at an offender)," a figurative use, from Latin fulminatus, past participle of fulminare "hurl lightning, lighten," figuratively "to thunder," from fulmen (genitive fulminis) "lightning flash," related to fulgor "lightning," fulgere "to shine, flash," from PIE *bhleg- "to shine, flash," from root *bhel- (1) "to shine, flash, burn." Metaphoric sense (the oldest in English) in reference to formal condemnation is from Medieval Latin fulminare, used of formal ecclesiastical censures. Related: Fulminated; fulminating.
"frame of wood erected on a post or pole with holes into which were put the head and hands of an offender who was thus exposed for public derision and abuse," mid-14c., pillorie (attested in Anglo-Latin from late 12c., in surnames from mid-13c.), from Old French pilori "pillory" (mid-12c.), which is related to Medieval Latin pilloria, but all are of uncertain origin. Perhaps a diminutive of Latin pila "pillar, stone barrier" (see pillar), but OED finds this proposed derivation "phonologically unsuitable."
late 15c., "one who fails to perform a duty or discharge an obligation," also, generally, "an offender against the law," a noun use from Latin delinquentum (nominative delinquens), present participle of delinquere "to fail; be wanting, fall short; do wrong, transgress, offend," from de- "completely" (see de-) + linquere "to leave" (from PIE root *leikw- "to leave"). As an adjective, "failing or neglectful in duty," from c. 1600 in English.
1670s, "person arraigned for a crime or offense," according to legal tradition from Anglo-French cul prit, a contraction of Culpable: prest (d'averrer nostre bille) "guilty, ready (to prove our case)," words used by prosecutor in opening a trial. See culpable. It seems the abbreviation cul. prit was mistaken in English for an address to the defendant.
Meaning "a criminal, an offender" (1769) is, according to OED, "A change of sense, apparently due to popular etymology, the word being referred directly to L. culpa fault, offense."
"a transgression or offense," in civil law, a misdemeanor, 1520s, from Latin delictum "fault, offense, crime," neuter singular of past participle of delinquere "to fail; be wanting, fall short; offend," from de- "completely" (see de-) + linquere "to leave" (from PIE root *leikw- "to leave"). Related: Delictable "criminal, wicked," early 15c. Phrase in flagrant delict translates Latin in flagrante delicto.
Delicts are commonly understood as slighter offenses which do not immediately affect the public peace, but which imply an obligation on the part of the offender to make an atonement to the public by suffering punishment, and also to make reparation for the injury committed The term delinquency has the same signification. [Century Dictionary]
"military punishment in which offender runs between rows of men who beat him in passing," 1640s, gantlope, gantelope, from Swedish gatlopp "passageway," from Old Swedish gata "lane" (see gate (n.)) + lopp "course," related to löpa "to run" (see leap (v.)). Probably borrowed by English soldiers during Thirty Years' War.
By normal evolution the Modern English form would be *gatelope, but the current spelling (first attested 1660s, not fixed until mid-19c.) is from influence of gauntlet (n.1) "a glove," "there being some vague association with 'throwing down the gauntlet' in challenge" [Century Dictionary].
late Old English curs "a prayer that evil or harm befall one; consignment of a person to an evil fate," of uncertain origin. No similar word exists in Germanic, Romance, or Celtic. Middle English Compendium says probably from Latin cursus "course" (see course (n.)) in the Christian sense "set of daily liturgical prayers" extended to "set of imprecations" as in the sentence of the great curse, "the formula read in churches four times a year, setting forth the various offenses which entailed automatic excommunication of the offender; also, the excommunication so imposed." Connection with cross is unlikely. Another suggested source is Old French curuz "anger."
Meaning "the evil which has been invoked upon one, that which causes severe trouble" is from early 14c. Curses as a histrionic exclamation ("curses upon him/her/it") is by 1680s. The curse in 19c. was the sentence imposed upon Adam and Eve in Genesis iii.16-19. The slang sense "menstruation" is from 1930. Curse of Scotland, the 9 of diamonds in cards, is attested from 1791, but the signification is obscure.