Etymology
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offend (v.)

early 14c., offenden, "to disobey or sin against (a person, human or divine)," a sense now obsolete, from Old French ofendre "hit, attack, injure; sin against; antagonize, excite to anger" and directly from Latin offendere "to hit, thrust, or strike against," figuratively "to stumble, commit a fault, displease, trespass against, provoke," from assimilated form of ob "in front of against" (see ob-) + -fendere "to strike" (found only in compounds; see defend).

Meaning "to violate (a law), to make a moral false step, to commit a crime" is from late 14c. Meaning "to wound the feelings of, displease, give displeasure to, excite personal annoyance or resentment in" is from late 14c. The literal sense of "to attack, assail" (late 14c.) is obsolete, but it is somewhat preserved in offense and offensive. Related: Offended; offending; offendedness.

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unoffending (adj.)
1560s, from un- (1) "not" + present participle of offend (v.).
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offender (n.)

early 15c., offendour, "a lawbreaker; a sinner," agent noun from offend (v.). Earlier was offendour (early 15c.), from Anglo-French.

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offensive (adj.)

1540s, "used in attack, attacking;" 1570s, "insulting, causing or giving displeasure," from French offensif (16c.) and directly from Medieval Latin offensivus, from Latin offens-, past-participle stem of offendere "offend" (see offend). Sense of "disgusting, disagreeable" (of odors, taste, etc.) is from 1590s. Related: Offensively; offensiveness.

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offense (n.)

late 14c., "hurt, harm, injury, pain;" also "breach of the law, wrongdoing; transgression against God, sin;" also "the causing of displeasure, act or fact of wounding the feelings of or displeasing another;" also "displeasure, annoyance, umbrage," from Old French ofense "offense, insult, wrong" (13c.) and directly from Latin offensa "an offense, injury, affront, crime," literally "a striking against," noun use of fem. past participle of offendere (see offend).

Meaning "action of attacking" is from c. 1400. Sporting sense of "the team on the attack, at bat, with the ball," etc. is by 1894.

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shock (v.1)
"to come into violent contact, strike against suddenly and violently," 1570s, now archaic or obsolete, from shock (n.1). Meaning "to give (something) an electric shock" is from 1746; sense of "to offend, displease" is first recorded 1690s.
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forfeit (v.)
mid-14c., " transgress, offend, misbehave;" late 14c., "to lose by misconduct," from forfeit (n.) or from Anglo-French forfet, Old French forfait, past participle of forfaire. Related: Forfeited; forfeits; forfeiting.
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pique (v.)

"to nettle, irritate, offend; stimulate to action by arousing envy, jealousy, etc., in a slight degree," 1670s, from French piquer "to prick, sting" (see pike (n.1)). Softened meaning "to stimulate, excite" is from 1690s. Related: Piqued; piquing.

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fash (v.)
1530s (Scottish) "to trouble, annoy, vex;" 1580s, "be angered," from Old French fascher (Modern French fâcher) "to anger, displease, offend," from Medieval Latin derived verb from Latin fastidiosus (see fastidious). As a noun from 1794. Related: Fashery (1550s).
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disgruntle (v.)

"disappoint, offend, throw into a state of sulky dissatisfaction," 1680s, from dis-, here probably meaning "entirely, very," + obsolete gruntle "to grumble, utter a low grunt" (Middle English gruntelen, early 15c.), frequentative of grunt (v.); hence "to complain" (by 1560s). All citations in OED are in the form of the past-participle adjective.

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