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obey (v.)

c. 1300, obeien, "carry out the commands of (someone); submit to (a command, rule, etc.); be ruled by," from Old French obeir "obey, be obedient, do one's duty" (12c.), from Latin obedire, oboedire "obey, be subject, serve; pay attention to, give ear," literally "listen to," from ob "to" (see ob-) + audire "listen, hear" (from PIE root *au- "to perceive"). Same sense development is in hiersumnian, the Old English word for the same thing. Related: Obeyed; obeying.

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obedient (adj.)

c. 1200, "willing to serve (someone); willing to fulfill an obligation," from Old French obedient "obedient" (11c.), from Latin oboedientem (nominative oboediens) "obedient, compliant," present participle of oboedire "to obey" (see obey).

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disobedience (n.)

"neglect or refusal to obey," c. 1400, from Old French desobedience, from Vulgar Latin *disobedientia (replacing Latin inobedientia) from Latin dis- (see dis-) + oboedientia "obedience," abstract noun from oboedientem (nominative oboediens), present participle of oboedire "to obey" (see obey). The English word replaced earlier desobeissance in this sense, and inobedience (c. 1200).

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disobey (v.)

late 14c., disobeien, "neglect or refuse to obey," from Old French desobeir (13c.) "disobey; refuse service or homage," from Vulgar Latin *disoboedire, reformed with dis- (see dis-) from Late Latin inobedire, a back-formation from inobediens "not obeying," from Latin in- "not" + present participle of obedire (see obey). Related: Disobeyed; disobeying.

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obeisance (n.)

late 14c., obeisaunce, "act or fact of obeying, submissiveness, quality of being compliant or dutiful; respectful submission, homage," from Old French obeissance "obedience, service, feudal duty" (13c.), from obeissant, present participle of obeir "to obey," from Latin oboedire "to obey" (see obey). The sense in English altered late 14c. to "bending or prostration of the body as a gesture of submission or respect, a bow or curtsy; deferential deportment; an act of reverence or deference" by influence of abase. Related: Obeisant.

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disobedient (adj.)

"neglecting or refusing to obey, refractory, not submitting to the rules or regulations prescribed by authority," early 15c., dysobedyent, from Old French desobedient, from Vulgar Latin *disobedientem (replacing Latin inobedientem) from Latin dis- (see dis-) + oboedientem (nominative oboediens), present participle of oboedire "to obey" (see obey). Related: Disobediently. Earlier in the same sense was disobeissant (late 14c.), from Old French desobeissant, and inobedient (early 14c.).

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obedience (n.)

c. 1200, "the practice or virtue of submission to a higher power or authority;" late 14c., "dutiful compliance with a command or law," from Old French obedience "obedience, submission" (12c.), from Latin oboedientia "obedience," abstract noun from oboedientem (nominative oboediens) "obedient, compliant," present participle of oboedire "to obey" (see obey). In reference to dog training from 1930.

It has been a constant remark, that free countries have ever paid the heaviest taxes. The obedience of a free people to general laws, however hard they bear, is ever more perfect than that of slaves to the arbitrary will of a prince. [Alexander Hamilton to James Duane, Sept. 3, 1780]
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*au- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to perceive."

It forms all or part of: aesthete; aesthetic; anesthesia; audible; audience; audio; audio-; audit; audition; auditor; auditorium; auditory; hyperaesthesia; kinesthetic; oyer; oyez; obedient; obey; paraesthesia; synaesthesia.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit avih, Avestan avish "openly, evidently;" Greek aisthanesthai "to feel;" Latin audire "to hear;" Old Church Slavonic javiti "to reveal."
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transparent (adj.)

early 15c., from Medieval Latin transparentem (nominative transparens), present participle of transparere "show light through," from Latin trans "across, beyond; through" (see trans-) + parere "come in sight, appear; submit, obey" (see appear). Figurative sense of "easily seen through" is first attested 1590s. The attempt to back-form a verb transpare (c. 1600) died with the 17c. Related: Transparently.

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recusant (adj.)

"obstinate in refusal," 1610s, from Latin recusantem (nominative recusans) "refusing to obey," present participle of recusare "make an objection against; decline, refuse, reject; be reluctant to" (see recuse).

Earlier as a noun in English history, specifically of those who refused to attend divine service in Anglican churches (1550s), a punishable offense, enforcement of which fell heavily on Roman Catholics. The original use of the adjective also is in reference to this.

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