Etymology
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nun (n.)

Old English nunne "woman devoted to religious life under vows of celibacy, poverty, and obedience to a superior," also "vestal, pagan priestess," from Late Latin nonna "nun, tutor," originally (along with masc. nonnus) a term of address to elderly persons, perhaps from children's speech, reminiscent of nana (compare Sanskrit nona, Persian nana "mother," Greek nanna "aunt," Serbo-Croatian nena "mother," Italian nonna, Welsh nain "grandmother;" see nanny).

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nunnery (n.)

late 13c., nonnerie, "nunhood, the life of nuns," from nun + -ery or from Old French nonnerie. Meaning "convent or cloister for the exclusive use of nuns" is from c. 1300. Transferred meaning "house of ill fame" is attested by 1590s.

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anchoress (n.)
"female recluse, nun," late 14c.; see anchorite + -ess.
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votary (n.)
1540s, "one consecrated by a vow," from Latin votum "a promise to a god; that which is promised" (see vow (n.)) + -ary. Originally "a monk or nun," general sense of "ardent devotee of some aim or pursuit" is from 1591 (in Shakespeare, originally in reference to love). Related: Votaress.
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Clarisse 
fem. proper name, often a diminutive of Clara and its relatives. Also, "a nun of the order of St. Clare" (1790s); the Franciscan order also known as the Poor Clares (c. 1600).
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religieuse (n.)

"a nun, a religious woman," 1690s, from French religieuse, fem. of religieux "monk, religious person" (itself used in English from 1650s but much less common), noun use of the adjective meaning "religious" (see religious). As a type of pastry, attested from 1929.

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chanteuse (n.)

"female singer of popular songs," 1866, from French chanteuse (16c.), fem. agent noun of chanter "to sing" (from PIE root *kan- "to sing"). In Old French, the word was chanteresse, which gave Middle English chaunteresse "nun who sings or leads the singing" (late 14c.). Milton has chauntress, but the word seems to have gone extinct before the 19c. reborrowing.

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clergywoman (n.)

1670s, "a nun," from clergy + woman on the model of clergyman. Not seriously as "woman pastor, woman of the clerical profession" until 1871; in between it was used humorously for "old woman" or "domineering wife of a clergyman." Clergess as "member of a female religious order" is attested from late 14c.; clergy-feme as "clergyman's wife or woman" is attested from 1580s.

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veil (n.)
c. 1200, "nun's head covering," from Anglo-French and Old North French veil (12c., Modern French voile) "a head-covering," also "a sail, a curtain," from Latin vela, plural of velum "sail, curtain, covering," from PIE root *weg- (1) "to weave a web." Vela was mistaken in Vulgar Latin for a feminine singular noun. To take the veil "become a nun" is attested from early 14c.
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vixen (n.)
Old English *fyxen (implied in adjective fyxan), fem. of fox (see fox (n.) and cognate with Middle High German vühsinne, German füchsin). Solitary English survival of the Germanic feminine suffix -en, -in (also in Old English gyden "goddess;" mynecen "nun," from munuc "monk;" wlyfen "she-wolf," etc.). The figurative sense "ill-tempered woman" is attested from 1570s. The spelling shift from -f- to -v- began late 1500s (see V).
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