Etymology
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number (v.)

c. 1300, "to count," from Old French nombrer "to count, reckon," from nombre (n.) "number" (see number (n.)). Meaning "to assign a distinctive number to" is late 14c.; that of "to ascertain the number of" is from early 15c. Related: Numbered; numbering.

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number (n.)

c. 1300, "sum, aggregate of a collection," from Anglo-French noumbre, Old French nombre and directly from Latin numerus "a number, quantity," from PIE root *nem- "assign, allot; take."

Meaning "written symbol or figure of arithmetic value" is from late 14c. Meaning "single (numbered) issue of a magazine" is from 1795. Colloquial sense of "a person or thing" is by 1894. Meaning "dialing combination to reach a particular telephone receiver" is from 1879; hence wrong number (1886). The modern meaning "musical selection" (1885) is from vaudeville theater programs, where acts were marked by a number. Earlier numbers meant "metrical sound or utterance, measured or harmonic expression" (late 15c.) and, from 1580s, "poetical measure, poetry, verse."

Number one "oneself" is from 1704 (mock-Italian form numero uno attested from 1973); the biblical Book of Numbers (c. 1400, Latin Numeri, Greek Arithmoi) is so called because it begins with a census of the Israelites. Childish slang number one and number two for "urination" and "defecation" attested from 1902. Number cruncher is 1966, of machines; 1971 of persons. To get or have (someone's) number "have someone figured out" is attested from 1853; to say one's number is up (1806) meaning "one's time has come" is a reference to the numbers on a lottery, draft, etc. The numbers "illegal lottery" is from 1897, American English.

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numberless (adj.)

"innumerable, countless," 1570s, from number (n.) + -less.

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unnumbered (adj.)
late 14c., from un- (1) "not" + past participle of number (v.).
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cardinal number (n.)
1590s, "one, two, three," etc. as opposed to ordinal numbers "first, second, third," etc.; so called because they are the principal numbers and the ordinals depend on them (see cardinal (adj.)).
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numeracy (n.)

"ability with or knowledge of numbers," 1957, on model of literacy, etc., from Latin numerus "a number" (see number (n.)).

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outnumber (v.)

"to number more than, exceed in number," 1660s, from out- + number (v.). Related: Outnumbered; outnumbering.

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No. 
as an abbreviation meaning (and pronounced) "number," 1660s, from Latin numero, ablative singular of numerus (see number (n.)).
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innumerate (adj.)
"unacquainted with the basic principles of mathematics," 1959, based on illiterate, with Latin numerus "a number" (see number (n.)). Related: Innumeracy.
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misnumber (v.)

1610s, "to count or reckon incorrectly," from mis- (1) "badly, wrongly" + number (v.). Related: Misnumbered; misnumbering.

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