Middle English non, none, from Old English nan "not one, not any, no person; not the least part," from ne "not" (see no) + an "one" (see one). Cognate with Old Saxon, Middle Low German nen, Old Norse neinn, Middle Dutch, Dutch neen, Old High German, German nein "no," and analogous to Latin non- (see non-). It is thus the negative of one, an, and a (1).
As an adverb, "1650s, "by no means;" 1799 as "in no respect or degree, to no extent." As an adjective from late Old English; since c. 1600 reduced to no except in a few archaic phrases, especially before vowels, such as none other, none the worse.
1580s, nonesuch "unmatched or unrivaled thing," from none + such. From 1640s as "person who has no equal." As a type of decorated 16c. or 17c. chest, it is in reference to Nonesuch Palace, in Surrey, which supposedly is represented in the designs. Middle English had an adjective non-swich "no such, not any such" (mid-13c.), also used as a surname and as a pronoun (c. 1300) meaning "no such person or thing."
"no thing, not any thing, not something," Middle English, from Old English naþing, naðinc, from nan "not one" (see none) + þing "thing" (see thing). Meaning "insignificant thing, thing of no consequence" is from c. 1600. As an adverb, "not at all, in no degree," late Old English. As an adjective by 1961. For nothing "not at all" is from c. 1300. Nothing to it, indicating something easy to do, is by 1925. Nothing to write home about, indicating an unremarkable circumstance or thing, is from 1917 among the World War I soldiers.
"not in any degree, not at all," Middle English, from Old English na, from ne "not, no" + a "ever." The first element is from Proto-Germanic *ne (source also of Old Norse, Old Frisian, Old High German ne, Gothic ni "not"), from PIE root *ne- "not." Second element is from Proto-Germanic *aiwi-, extended form of PIE root *aiw- "vital force, life, long life, eternity." Ultimately identical to nay, and the differences of use are accidental.
As an adjective, "not any, not one, none" (c. 1200) it is reduced from Old English nan (see none), the final -n omitted first before consonants and then altogether. As an interjection making a negative reply to a statement or question, "not so," early 13c., from the adverb. As a noun, 1580s as "a denial; a negative vote," 1650s as "person who casts a negative vote."
Construction no X, no Y is attested from 1530s (in no peny no pardon). No problem as an interjection of assurance is attested by 1963. No way as a colloquial expression meaning "it can't be done" is attested by 1968 (noway (adv.) "not at all, in no respect, by no means" is from c. 1300). No-knock (adj.) in reference to police raids without permission or warning is by 1970, American English. Phrase no can do "it is not possible" is attested from 1827, a locution of English-speaking Chinese noted 19c. in China, Australia, and the West Coast of the United States.
We repeated our advice again and again, but got no answer but a loud horse-laugh, and their national maxim of No can do: Europe fashion no do in China. ["Reminiscences of a Voyage to and from China," in Paxton's Horticultural Register, London, 1836]
"not the more or not the less on that account," 1839, none the less; contracted into one word by c. 1930.
"only, no one but," 14c., a colloquial or dialectal fusion of not but or none but.
"beaten whites of eggs mixed with sugar," 1706, from French méringue (18c.), which is of unknown origin. None of the geographical explanations is regarded as convincing.