"small, tailed, salamander-like amphibian," early 15c., neute, newte, a misdivision of an ewte (see N for other examples), a variation of Middle English evete (see eft). "Eft, though now only provincial, is strictly the correct form" [Century Dictionary]. OED notes that "the change of v to w is unusual."
1650s, "advancement" (a sense now obsolete); 1868 in the philological sense "carrying of the final letter of a word into the next one" (as in newt), from Late Latin provectionem (nominative provectio) "advancement," noun of action from past-participle stem provehere "to carry forward," from pro "toward, ahead" (see pro-) + vehere "to carry" (from PIE root *wegh- "to go, move, transport in a vehicle"). Middle English had a verb provecten "to advance (someone), exalt" (mid-15c.), from Latin provectus, past participle of provehere.
mid-14c., salamandre, "legendary lizard-like creature supposed to live in fire," from Old French salamandre "legendary fiery beast," also "cricket" (12c.), from Latin salamandra, from Greek salamandra, a kind of lizard supposed to be an extinguisher of fire, a word probably of eastern origin or, as per Beekes, of Pre-Greek origin.
The application in zoology to a tailed amphibian (known commonly as an eft or newt, but these words are sometimes applied only to the water-salamanders), is recorded by 1610s. Aristotle, and especially Pliny, are responsible for the fiction of an animal that thrives in and extinguishes fires. The eft lives in damp logs and secretes a milky substance when threatened, but there is no obvious natural explanation for the myth. The word also was given as a name to a type of imaginary elemental of fire (1680s).
With some technical extensions to things used in connection with the fire or used when very hot (1660s). Also used 18c. for "a woman who lives chastely in the midst of temptations" (after Addison), and "a soldier who exposes himself to fire in battle." A salamander-stove (1842) was a small portable stove used to heat a room. To rub someone a salamander was a 19c. form of German student drinking toast (einem einen salamander reiben).
Related adjectives: Salamandrous (1711); salamandrine (1712); salamandroid (1854); salamandry (c. 1600).
fourteenth letter of the English alphabet; in chemistry, the symbol for nitrogen.
In late Middle English a and an commonly were joined to the following noun, if that word began with a vowel, which caused confusion over how such words ought to be divided when written separately. In nickname, newt, and British dialectal naunt, the -n- belongs to a preceding indefinite article an or possessive pronoun mine.
Other examples of this from Middle English manuscripts include a neilond ("an island," early 13c.), a narawe ("an arrow," c. 1400), a nox ("an ox," c. 1400), a noke ("an oak," early 15c.), a nappyle ("an apple," early 15c.), a negge ("an egg," 15c.), a nynche ("an inch," c. 1400), a nostryche ("an ostrich," c. 1500). My naunt for mine aunt is recorded from 13c.-17c. None other could be no noder (mid-15c.). My nown (for mine own) was frequent 15c.-18c. In 16c., an idiot sometimes became a nidiot (1530s), which, with still-common casual pronunciation, became nidget (1570s), now, alas, no longer whinnying with us.
It is "of constant recurrence" in the 15c. vocabularies, according to Thomas Wright, their modern editor. One has, among many others, Hoc alphabetum ... a nabse, from misdivision of an ABC (and pronouncing it as a word), and Hic culus ... a ners. Also compare nonce, pigsney. Even in 19c. provincial English and U.S., noration (from an oration) was "a speech; a rumor."
The process also worked in surnames, from oblique cases of Old English at "by, near," as in Nock/Nokes/Noaks from atten Oke "by the oak;" Nye from atten ye "near the lowland;" and see Nashville. (Elision of the vowel of the definite article also took place and was standard in Chancery English of the 15c.: þarchebisshop for "the archbishop," thorient for "the orient.")
But it is more common for an English word to lose an -n- to a preceding a: apron, auger, adder, umpire, humble pie, etc. By a related error in Elizabethan English, natomy or atomy was common for anatomy, noyance (annoyance) and noying (adj.) turn up 14c.-17c., and Marlowe (1590) has Natolian for Anatolian. The tendency is not limited to English: compare Luxor, jade (n.1), lute, omelet, and Modern Greek mera for hēmera, the first syllable being confused with the article.
The mathematical use of n for "an indefinite number" is attested by 1717 in phrases such as to the nth power (see nth). In Middle English n. was written in form documents to indicate an unspecified name of a person to be supplied by the speaker or reader.