late 14c., "act of dwelling in a place; one's dwelling place," from Old French residence, from Medieval Latin residentia (source also of Spanish residencia, Italian residenza), from Latin residentem (nominative residens) "residing, dwelling," present participle of residere "to settle, linger, sit down" (see reside).
Meaning "fact of having one's usual abode in a particular place" is from late 15c. The sense of "a staying in some place for the discharge of special duties or one's occupation" is also from late 14c., originally ecclesiastical, extended 19c. to professors, artists, poets, etc. The expression _____-in-residence is attested by 1954. Also borrowed into German (Residenz), Dutch (residentie).
mid-15c., "place of residence of a person or family," from Old French domicile (14c.) and directly from Latin domicilium, perhaps from domus "house" (from PIE root *dem- "house, household") + colere "to dwell" (see colony). In law, specifically, "that residence from which there is no intention to remove, or a general intention to return" (mid-18c.).
As a verb, "to establish in a fixed residence," it is attested by 1762 (implied in domiciled). Related: Domiciliary.
early 14c., "encampment;" late 14c., "temporary accommodation; place of residence," verbal noun from lodge (v.). Related: Lodgings.