Etymology
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proximal (adj.)

1727, "nearest, next," from Latin proximus "nearest, next" (see proximity) + -al (1). In biological sciences, "situated near the center of the body," 1803, opposed to distal or extremital. Related: Proximally.

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middlemost (adj.)

early 14c., "being in or nearest the middle; being the middle one of three," from middle (adj.) + -most.

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next (adj.)

"nearest in place, position, rank, or turn," Middle English nexte, from Old English niehsta, nyhsta (West Saxon), nesta (Anglian) "nearest in position or distance, closest in kinship," superlative of neah (West Saxon), neh (Anglian) "nigh;" from Proto-Germanic *nekh- "near" + superlative suffix *-istaz. Cognate with Old Norse næstr, Dutch naast "next," Old High German nahisto "neighbor," German nächst "next."

In reference to time by c. 1200. Adverbial ("next to, immediately after; almost, within a little of") and prepositional ("nearest to, immediately adjacent to") uses are from c. 1200. Phrase the next man "a typical person" is from 1857. Next-best "second best" is by 1670s.

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pitch-and-toss (n.)

1810, from pitch (v.1) + toss (v.).

A game in which the players pitch coins at a mark, that one whose coin lies nearest to the mark having the privilege of tossing up all the coins together and retaining all the coins that come down " head " up. The next nearest player tosses those that are left, and retains all that come down "head" up, and so on until the coins are all gone. [Century Dictionary]
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foreground (n.)
1690s, "part of a landscape nearest the observer," from fore- + ground (n.). First used in English by Dryden ("Art of Painting"); compare Dutch voorgrond. Figurative use by 1816.
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infield (n.)
1733, "land of a farm which lies nearest the homestead," from in (adv.) + field (n.). Baseball diamond sense first attested 1866. Related: Infielder (1867).
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approximate (v.)
early 15c., "to bring or put close," from Late Latin approximatus, past participle of approximare "to come near to," from Latin ad "to" (see ad-) + proximare "come near," from proximus "nearest," superlative of prope "near" (see propinquity). Intransitive meaning "to come close" is from 1789. Related: Approximated; approximating.
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proximity (n.)

"nearness in place, time, or relation," late 15c., proxymyte [Caxton], from French proximité "nearness" (14c.), from Latin proximitatem (nominative proximitas) "nearness, vicinity," from proximus "nearest, next; most direct; adjoining," figuratively "latest, most recent; next, following; most faithful," superlative of prope "near" (see propinquity).

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proximo 

in correspondence, etc., "in or of the next or coming month," noting a day in the coming month (proximo mense), Latin ablative singular of proximus "nearest, next" (see proximate). Often abbreviated prox. Compare ultimo, instant (adj.).

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perihelion (n.)

"point at which a planet or comet is nearest the Sun," 1680s, coined in Modern Latin (perihelium) by Kepler (1596) from Latinizations of Greek peri "near" (see peri-) + hēlios "sun" (from PIE root *sawel- "the sun"). Subsequently re-Greeked.

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