adverbial suffix indicating direction, from Old Norse -langr, from langr "long" (adj.); see long (adj.). Displaced native -ling.
also -erel, diminutive or deprecatory word-forming element, in some cases from Old French -erel (Modern French -ereau) or -erelle, but mostly used with native stems.
syllable formed when the word-forming element -ude, making abstract nouns from adjectives and participles, is fixed to a base or to another suffix ending in -t or -te; from French -ude, from Latin -udo (stem -udin-). The equivalent of native -ness.
word-forming element meaning "worship of," used as an element in native formations from 19c. (such as bardolatry), from Greek -latreia "worship, service paid to the gods, hired labor," related to latron (n.) "pay, hire," latris "servant, worshipper," from PIE *le- (1) "to get" (see larceny).
word-forming element meaning "small, little" (in capsule, module, etc.), from French -ule, from Latin diminutive suffix -ulus (fem. -ula, neuter -ulum), from PIE *-(o)lo-, from *-lo-, secondary suffix forming diminutives, which also is the source of the first element in native diminutive suffix -ling.
word-forming element meaning "excessive or irrational fear, horror, or aversion," from Latin -phobia and directly from Greek -phobia "panic fear of," from phobos "fear" (see phobia). In widespread popular use with native words from c. 1800. In psychology, "an abnormal or irrational fear." Related: -phobic.
word-forming element meaning "one who does or makes," also used to indicate adherence to a certain doctrine or custom, from French -iste and directly from Latin -ista (source also of Spanish, Portuguese, Italian -ista), from Greek agent-noun ending -istes, which is from -is-, ending of the stem of verbs in -izein, + agential suffix -tes.
Variant -ister (as in chorister, barrister) is from Old French -istre, on false analogy of ministre. Variant -ista is from Spanish, popularized in American English 1970s by names of Latin-American revolutionary movements.
derivational suffix, also -le, used mostly with verbs but originally also with nouns, "often denoting diminutive, repetitive, or intensive actions or events" [The Middle English Compendium], from Old English. Compare brastlian alongside berstan (see burst); nestlian (see nestle) alongside nistan). It is likely also in wrestle, trample, draggle, struggle, twinkle, also noddle "to make frequent nods" (1733). New formations in Middle English might be native formations (jostle from joust) with this or borrowings from Dutch.
occasional plural suffix of words ending in -a (see a- (1)), most of which, in English, are from Latin nominative fem. singular nouns (or Greek ones brought up through Latin), which in Latin form their plurals in -ae. But plurals in native -s were established early in English for many of them (such as idea, arena) and many have crossed over since. Purity now would only breed monsters.