Etymology
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mutation (n.)

late 14c., mutacioun, "action or process of changing," from Old French mutacion (13c.), and directly from Latin mutationem (nominative mutatio) "a changing, alteration, a turn for the worse," noun of action from past-participle stem of mutare "to change" (from PIE root *mei- (1) "to change, go, move"). The genetics sense "process whereby heritable changes in DNA arise" is from 1894. The linguist's i-mutation is attested from 1874; earlier was i-umlaut (1869), from German, for which mutation was Sweet's English substitute.

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mutagen (n.)

"agent that causes mutation," 1946, from mutation + -gen "thing that produces." Related: Mutagenic; mutagenesis; mutagenize.

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mutate (v.)

1818, "to change state or condition, undergo change," back-formation from mutation. In the genetic sense, "undergo mutation," 1913, from Latin mutatus, past participle of mutare "to change" (from PIE root *mei- (1) "to change, go, move"). Related: Mutated; mutating.

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*mei- (1)
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to change, go, move," "with derivatives referring to the exchange of goods and services within a society as regulated by custom or law" [Watkins].

It forms all or part of: amiss; amoeba; azimuth; common; commune; communicate; communication; communism; commute; congee; demean; emigrate; emigration; excommunicate; excommunication; immune; immutable; incommunicado; mad; mean (adj.1) "low-quality;" mew (n.2) "cage;" mews; migrate; migration; mis- (1) "bad, wrong;" mistake; Mithras; molt; Mstislav; municipal; munificent; mutable; mutant; mutate; mutation; mutatis mutandis; mutual; permeable; permeate; permutation; permute; remunerate; remuneration; transmutation; transmute; zenith.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit methati "changes, alternates, joins, meets;" Avestan mitho "perverted, false;" Hittite mutai- "be changed into;" Latin mutare "to change," meare "to go, pass," migrare "to move from one place to another," mutuus "done in exchange;" Old Church Slavonic mite "alternately;" Czech mijim "to go by, pass by," Polish mijać "avoid;" Gothic maidjan "to change."
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geese (n.)

plural of goose (n.). An instance of i-mutation

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Vaughan 
from Welsh fychan, mutation of bychan "small."
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chunk (v.)
"to throw," 1835, American English, from chunk (n.) or by similar mutation from chuck (v.1). Related: Chunked; chunking.
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mice (n.)

plural of mouse (n.), from Old English mys. It shows effects of i-mutation.

A cube of cheese no larger than a die
May bait the trap to catch a nibbling mie.
[Bierce]
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filth (n.)
Old English fylð "uncleanness, impurity, foulness," from Proto-Germanic *fulitho (source also of Old Saxon fulitha "foulness, filth," Dutch vuilte, Old High German fulida), noun derivative of *fulo- "foul" (see foul (adj.)). A classic case of i-mutation.
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bathe (v.)
Old English baþian "to wash, lave, place in a bath, take a bath" (transitive and intransitive), from root of bath (q.v.), with different vowel sound due to i-mutation. Related: Bathed; bathing. Similar nouns in Old Norse baða, Old High German badon, German baden.
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