Etymology
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musket (n.)

"firearm for infantry" (later replaced by the rifle), 1580s, from French mousquette, also the name of a kind of sparrow-hawk, diminutive of mosca "a fly," from Latin musca (see midge). The hawk so called either for its size or because it looks speckled when in flight.

Early firearms often were given names of beasts (compare dragoon, also falcon, a kind of cannon mentioned by Hakluyt), and the equivalent word in Italian was used to mean "an arrow for a crossbow." Wedgwood also compares culverin, a simple early sort of firearm, from French couleuvrine, from couleuvre "grass snake."

French mousquette had been borrowed earlier into Middle English (late 14c.; c. 1200 as a surname) in its literal sense of "sparrow-hawk."

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musketeer (n.)
"soldier armed with a musket," 1580s, from musket + -eer, or else from French mousquetaire, from mousquette (see musket).
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musketry (n.)

1640s, "muskets collectively," from French mousqueterie, from mousquet "musket" (see musket), on analogy of Italian moschetteria.

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dragoon (n.)

1620s, "cavalry soldier carrying firearms," and thus capable of service either on horseback or on foot, from French dragon, probably so called for the guns they carried, from dragon "carbine, musket," because the guns "breathed fire" like dragons (see dragon). Also see -oon. For the sense evolution, compare musket.

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fusil (n.)
flintlock musket, 1670s, from French fusil "musket" (see fusilier). Originally in English as distinguished from the matchlock variety.
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fusillade (n.)
"simultaneous discharge of firearms," 1801, from French fusillade, from fusiller "to shoot" (18c.), from fusil "musket" (see fusilier). As a verb from 1816.
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fusilier (n.)
also fusileer, 1670s, "soldier armed with a musket," from French fusilier "musket" (17c.), literally "piece of steel against which a flint strikes flame," from Old French fuisil, foisil "steel for striking fire; flint; whetstone; grindstone" (12c.), from Vulgar Latin *focilis (petra) "(stone) producing fire," from Latin focus "hearth," in Vulgar Latin "fire" (see focus (n.)). Retained by certain regiments of the British army that were formerly armed with fusils.
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fusee (n.)
also fuzee, type of light musket, 1660s, from pronunciation of French fusil (see fusilier). As the name of a type of match used in lighting cigars and pipes by 1832, from fusee as a variant of fuse (n.).
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tail-pipe (n.)
also tailpipe, 1757, "small pipe fixed at the swell of a musket to receive the ramrod," from tail (n.1) + pipe (n.). From 1832 as "suction pipe of a pump;" 1907 as "exhaust pipe of an automobile."
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Betsy 
fem. pet name, a diminutive of Bet, itself short for Elizabet or Elizabeth. Betsy or Bessy (a variant form) as the typical pet-name for a favorite firearm is attested in American English by 1856 (compare Brown Bess, by 1785, British army slang for the old flintlock musket).
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