Etymology
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multiply (v.)

mid-12c., multeplien, "to cause to become many, cause to increase in number or quantity," from Old French multiplier, mouteplier (12c.) "increase, get bigger; flourish; breed; extend, enrich," from Latin multiplicare "to increase," from multiplex (genitive multiplicis) "having many folds, many times as great in number," from combining form of multus"much, many" (see multi-) + -plex "-fold," from PIE root *plek- "to plait."

Intransitive sense of "grow or increase in number or extent" (especially "to have children, produce offspring") is from mid-14c. Mathematical sense "perform the process of multiplication" is attested from late 14c. Related: Multiplied; multiplying.

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multiplicand (n.)

"number multiplied or to be multiplied by another number," 1590s, from Latin multiplicandus "to be multiplied," gerundive of multiplicare "to multiply, increase" (see multiply).

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multiplex (adj.)

"manifold, multiple, multiplicate," 1550s, from Latin multiplex "having many folds; many times as great in number; of many parts" (see multiply). As a noun, late 14c. in arithmetic, "a multiple."

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multiplier (n.)

late 15c., "one who or that which multiplies or increases in number," agent noun from multiply. In arithmetic, "the number by which another is multiplied," 1540s.

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multiplicable (adj.)

"capable of being multiplied," late 15c., from Latin multiplicabilis "manifold," from multiplicare "to multiply, increase" (see multiply). Alternative multipliable is recorded from 1620s.

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multiplicative (adj.)

"tending to multiply or increase," 1650s, from Medieval Latin multiplicativus, from multiplicat-, past-participle stem of Latin multiplicare "to multiply, increase" (see multiply).

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*mel- (2)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "strong, great." It forms all or part of: ameliorate; amelioration; meliorate; melioration; meliorism; multi-; multiform; multiple; multiply; multitude. It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek mala "very, very much;" Latin multus "much, many," melior "better."  

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multiplication (n.)

mid-14c., multiplicacioun, "any increase in size, number, or amount; act or process of increasing in number," from Old French multiplicacion (12c.) "multiplication, duplication; multiplicity, diversity," from Latin multiplicationem (nominative multiplicatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of multiplicare "to multiply, increase" (see multiply). The arithmetical sense of "process in which one number is considered as an operator on another" is attested from late 14c.

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manifold (adj.)

"of many kinds; numerous in kind or variety; diverse; exhibiting or embracing many points, features, or characteristics," Old English monigfald (Anglian), manigfeald (West Saxon), "various, varied in appearance, complicated; many times magnified; numerous, abundant," from manig (see many) + -feald (see -fold). A Proto-Germanic compound, *managafalþaz (source also of Old Frisian manichfald, Middle Dutch menichvout, German mannigfalt, Swedish mångfalt, Gothic managfalþs), perhaps a loan-translation of Latin multiplex (see multiply).

It retains the original pronunciation of many. Old English also had a verbal form, manigfealdian "to multiply, abound, increase, extend;" in modern times the verb meant "to make multiple copies of by a single operation." Related: Manifoldness.

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*plek- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to plait." It is an extended form of root *pel- (2) "to fold."

It forms all or part of: accomplice; application; apply; complex; complexion; complicate; complication; complicity; deploy; display; duplex; duplicate; duplicity; employ; explicate; explicit; exploit; flax; implex; implicate; implication; implicit; imply; multiply; perplex; perplexity; plait; plash (v.2) "to interlace;" pleat; -plex; plexus; pliable; pliant; plie; plight (n.1) "condition or state;" ply (v.1) "work with, use;" ply (v.2) "to bend; ply (n.) "a layer, fold;" replica; replicate; replication; reply; simplex; splay; triplicate.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit prasna- "turban;" Greek plekein "to plait, braid, wind, twine," plektos "twisted;" Latin plicare "to lay, fold, twist," plectere (past participle plexus) "to plait, braid, intertwine;" Old Church Slavonic plesti "to braid, plait, twist," Russian plesti; Gothic flahta "braid;" Old Norse fletta, Old High German flehtan "to plait;" Old English fleax "cloth made with flax, linen."
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