Etymology
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mufti (n.1)

1580s, muphtie "official head of the state religion in Turkey," from Arabic mufti "judge," active participle (with formative prefix mu-) of afta "to give," conjugated form of fata "he gave a (legal) decision" (compare fatwa).

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mufti (n.2)

 "ordinary clothes, citizen's dress worn by officers when off duty," a British army term from India, 1816, of uncertain origin, perhaps from mufti (n.1) in reference to mufti's costume of robe and slippers in stage plays, if this was thought to resemble plain clothes. 

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fatwa (n.)
1620s, from Arabic fetwa "a decision given by a mufti," related to fata "to instruct by a legal decision." Popularized in English 1989 when Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran issued a ruling sentencing author Salman Rushdie to death for publishing "The Satanic Verses" (1988). This was lifted 1998.
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