Etymology
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morning (n.)

"first part of the day" (technically from midnight to noon), late 14c., a contraction of mid-13c. morwenynge, moregeninge, from morn, morewen (see morn) + suffix -ing, on pattern of evening. Originally the time just before sunrise.

As an adjective from 1530s; as a greeting by 1895, short for good morning. Morning after in reference to a hangover is from 1884; in reference to a type of contraception, attested by 1967. Morning sickness as a symptom of pregnancy is from 1793 (Old English had morgenwlætung). Morning glory, the twining plant, is from 1814, so called because the colorful trumpet-shaped flowers open only in the early morning. Morning star "Venus in the east before sunrise" is from 1530s (Old English had morgensteorra "morn-star").

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good morning 
greeting salutation, c. 1400, from good (adj.) + morning. Earlier good morwe (late 14c.), from morrow.
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Phosphor (n.)

"the morning star, Lucifer," 1630s, from Latin Phosphorus "the morning star," literally "light-bringing" (see phosphorus). Meaning "anything phosphorescent" is from 1705.

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matutinal (adj.)

"pertaining to the morning; coming or occurring early in the day," 1650s, from Latin mātūtīnalis "pertaining to morning," from mātūtīnus "of or pertaining to the morning," from Mātūta, name of the Roman goddess of dawn, related to mātūrus "early" (see mature (v.)). Earlier in same sense was matutine (mid-15c.). Related: Matutinally.

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Korea 
by 1690s, from Chinese Gao li, name of a dynasty founded 918, literally "high serenity." Japanese Chosen is from Korean Choson, literally "land of morning calm," from cho "morning" + son "calm." Related: Korean (1610s). In early use Corea, Corean.
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morrow (n.)

"morning," 12c. in compounds (morge-sclep "morning-sleep," morgewile "period around daybreak"); mid-13c. as morewe; c. 1300 as morwe; a shortened variation of morewen "morrow" (see morn). It was formerly common in the salutation good morrow (late 14c.).

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morn (n.)

"the first part of the day, the morning," late 14c., contracted from Middle English morwen, morghen, from Old English (Mercian) margen (dative marne), earlier morgen (dative morgne) "morning, forenoon, sunrise," from Proto-Germanic *murgana- "morning" (source also of Old Saxon morgan, Old Frisian morgen, Middle Dutch morghen, Dutch morgen, Old High German morgan, German Morgen, Gothic maurgins), from PIE *merk-, perhaps from root *mer- "to blink, twinkle" (source of Lithuanian mirgėti "to blink"). By late 19c. relegated to poetry.

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matins (n.)

canonical hour, mid-13c., from Old French matines (12c.), from Late Latin matutinas (nominative matutinæ) "morning prayers," originally matutinas vigilias "morning watches," from Latin matutinus "of or in the morning," associated with Matuta, Roman dawn goddess (see manana). Properly a midnight office (occupied by two services, nocturns and lauds) but sometimes celebrated at sunrise. The Old English word was uht-sang, from uhte "daybreak."

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crepuscule (n.)

"morning or evening twilight," late 14c., from Old French crépuscule (13c.), from Latin crepusculum.

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daybreak (n.)

"dawn, first appearance of light in the morning," 1520s, from day + break (n.).

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