Etymology
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Monday (n.)

second day of the week, Middle English monedai, from Old English mōndæg, contraction of mōnandæg "Monday," literally "day of the moon," from mona (genitive monan; see moon (n.)) + dæg (see day). A common Germanic name (compare Old Norse manandagr, Old Frisian monendei, Dutch maandag, German Montag). All are loan-translations of Late Latin Lunæ dies, which also is the source of the day name in Romance languages (French lundi, Italian lunedi, Spanish lunes), itself a loan-translation of Greek Selēnēs hēmera. The name for this day in Slavic tongues generally means "day after Sunday."

Yf cristemas day on A munday be,
Grete wynter þat yere ye shull see.
[proverb, c. 1500]

Phrase Monday morning quarterback is attested from 1932, Monday being the first day back at work after the weekend, where school and college football games played over the weekend were discussed. Black Monday (late 14c.) is the Monday after Easter day, though how it got its reputation for bad luck is a mystery (none of the usual explanation stories holds water). Saint Monday (1753) was "used with reference to the practice among workmen of being idle Monday, as a consequence of drunkenness on the Sunday" before [OED]. Clergymen, meanwhile, when indisposed complained of feeling Mondayish (1804) in reference to effects of Sunday's labors.

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Selene 

moon goddess, equivalent of Latin Luna, from Greek selēnē "the moon; name of the moon goddess," related to selas "light, brightness, bright flame, flash of an eye," from PIE root *swel- (2) "to shine, beam" (source also of Sanskrit svargah "heaven," Lithuanian svilti "to singe," Old English swelan "to be burnt up," Middle Low German swelan "to smolder"); related to swelter, sultry. Related: Selenian "of or pertaining to the moon as a world," 1660s.

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Sinai 
the mountain is perhaps named for Sin, a moon goddess worshipped by Sumerians, Akkadians, and ancient Arabs. As an adjectival form, Sinaic (1769), Sinaitic (1786).
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Phoebe 

fem. proper name, originally (late 14c.), a name of Artemis as the goddess of the moon, also the moon itself (mid-15c.); from Latin Phoebe, from Greek Phoebē, from phoibos "bright, pure," a word of unknown origin. The fem. form of Phoebus, an epithet of Apollo as sun-god. Phoebe, a notable figure in the early Church, is mentioned in Romans 16:1-2. Most popular as a given name for girls born in the U.S. in the 1880s and 2010s.

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Artemis 
Greek goddess of the moon, wild animals, hunting, childbirth, etc. (identified by the Romans with their Diana); daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin sister of Apollo; her name is of unknown origin.
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Diana 

c. 1200, ancient Italian goddess of the moon, patroness of virginity and hunting, later identified with Greek Artemis, and through her with eastern goddesses such as Diana of Ephesus. From Late Latin Diana, on Old Latin Jana. The name is explained as *Diwjana, from *diw-yo-, from PIE root *dyeu- "to shine," in derivatives "sky, heaven, god," in reference to the shining moon, or from dius "godly."

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Cynthia 

fem. proper name, also a poetic name of the Moon, from Latin Cynthia dea "the Cynthian goddess," epithet of Artemis/Diana, who is said to have been born on Mt. Cynthus (Greek Kynthos) on the isle of Delos.

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Thammuz (n.)
1530s, from Hebrew tammuz, tenth month of the Jewish civil year, fourth of the sacred, covering parts of June and July; also the name of a Syrian deity equivalent to Phoenician Adon, whose festival began with the new moon of this month (compare Tammuz).
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Astarte 

name of a Phoenician goddess identified by the Greeks with their Aphrodite, from Greek Astarte, from Phoenician Astoreth (plural Ashtaroth), equivalent to Assyrian Ishtar. Apparently properly a virginal goddess of the moon or the heavens, but she has been frequently confounded since Biblical times with the sensual Ashera (see Asherah).

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Io 
in Greek mythology, daughter of the river god Inachus, she was pursued by Zeus, who changed her to a heifer in a bid to escape the notice of Juno, but she was tormented by a gadfly sent by Juno. The Jovian moon was discovered in 1610 and named for her by Galileo.
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