Etymology
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mons (n.)

from Latin mons (plural montes) "mountain" (from PIE root *men- (2) "to project"); used in English in various anatomical senses, especially mons Veneris "mountains of Love," fleshy eminence atop the vaginal opening, 1690s; often mons for short.

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*men- (2)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to project." 

It forms all or part of: amenable; amount; cismontane; demeanor; dismount; eminence; eminent; imminence; imminent; menace; minacious; minatory; mons; montage; montagnard; monte; mount (n.1) "hill, mountain;" mount (v.) "to get up on;" mountain; mountebank; mouth; Osmond; Piedmont; promenade; prominence; prominent; promontory; remount; surmount; ultramontane.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit manya "nape of the neck;" Latin mons "mountain," eminere "to stand out;" Old Irish muin "neck," Welsh mwnwgl "neck," mwng "mane;" Welsh mynydd "mountain." 

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Montmartre 

district in Paris, from Latin Mons Martyrum "Martyrs' Mount," in reference to St. Denis, first bishop of Paris, who was beheaded here with two companions in 258. The older name was Mons Mercurii. The modern cemetery there was opened in 1825.

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Apennine 
Latin Apenninus (mons), the chain of mountains which forms the spine of Italy, perhaps from Celtic penn "hill, head of land" (see pen-).
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cismontane (adj.)

"situated on (the speaker's) side of the mountain or mountains," 1826, from Latin cis- "on this side of" (see cis-) + stem of mons "mountain" (from PIE root *men- (2) "to project"). Specifically "on the north side of the Alps" (compare ultramontane).

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Tarpeian rock (n.)
rock face on the Capitoline Hill in Rome, from which persons convicted of treason were thrown headlong, from Latin (mons) Tarpeius "(rock) of Tarpeia," said to have been a Vestal virgin who betrayed the capitol to the Sabines and was buried at the foot of the rock. Her name probably is of Etruscan-Tyrrhenian origin.
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promontory (n.)

"high point of land or rock projecting into the sea beyond the line of a coast," 1540s, from French promontoire (15c.) and directly from Medieval Latin promontorium, altered (by influence of Latin mons "mount, hill") from Latin promunturium "mountain ridge, headland," which is probably related to prominere "jut out" (see prominent). Related: Promontorial; promontorious.

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ultramontane (adj.)

1590s, from French ultramontain "beyond the mountains" (especially the Alps), from Old French (early 14c.), from Latin ultra "beyond" (from suffixed form of PIE root *al- (1) "beyond") + stem of mons "hill" (from PIE root *men- (2) "to project"). Used especially of papal authority, though "connotation varies according to the position of the speaker or writer." [Weekley]

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imminent (adj.)

1520s, from French imminent (14c.) and directly from Latin imminentem (nominative imminens) "overhanging; impending," present participle of imminere "to overhang, lean towards," hence "be near to," also "threaten, menace, impend, be at hand, be about to happen," from assimilated form of in- "into, in, on, upon" (from PIE root *en "in") + -minere "jut out," which is related to mons "hill" (from PIE root *men- (2) "to project"). Related: Imminently.

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Vatican 

1550s, from Latin mons Vaticanus, Roman hill on which Papal palace stands. By Klein's sources said to be an Etruscan loan-word and unrelated to vates "soothsayer, prophet, seer" (see vates), but most others seem to think it is related, on the notion of "hill of prophecy" (compare vaticinatio "a foretelling, soothsaying, prophesying," vaticinari "to foretell").

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