Etymology
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monopoly (n.)

1530s, "exclusive control of a commodity or trade," from Latin monopolium, from Greek monopōlion "right of exclusive sale," from monos "single, alone" (from PIE root *men- (4) "small, isolated") + pōlein "to sell," from PIE root *pel- (4) "to sell."

Alternative form monopole (1540s, from the Old French form of the word) was common in 16c. Meaning "possession of anything to the exclusion of others" is by 1640s; sense of "a company or corporation which enjoys a monopoly" is by 1871. The popular board game, developed in its final version by Charles Darrow (1889-1967) and marketed by Parker Brothers, is from 1935, the year it was a craze. Monopoly money "unreal currency" is attested by 1959, in reference to the paper used in the game.

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monopolistic (adj.)

"relating to or promoting a monopoly or a system of monopolies," 1858; see monopoly + -istic.

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monopolize (v.)

"obtain a monopoly of, have an exclusive right of trading," also "obtain the whole of, get exclusive possession of," 1610s; see monopoly + -ize. Figurative use from 1620s. Related: Monopolized; monopolizing; monopolization.

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monopolist (n.)

"one who has exclusive command or control of some branch of trade or article of commerce," c. 1600; see monopoly + -ist.

The concept is older than the word. Middle English had regrater "monopolist, one who buys up goods before they come to market" (late 14c.; early 13c. as a surname), from Old French regrateor and Medieval Latin regrator. There also was a verb, regrate, regrating

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*pel- (4)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to sell." 

It forms all or part of: bibliopole; monopolize; monopoly; oligopolistic; oligopoly.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit panate "barters, purchases;" Lithuanian pelnas "gain;" Greek pōlein "to sell;" Old Church Slavonic splenu, Russian polon "prey, booty;" Old Norse falr, Dutch veil, German feil "for sale, venal."  

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*men- (4)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "small, isolated."

It forms all or part of: malmsey; manometer; monad; monarchy; monastery; monism; monist; monk; mono; mono-; monoceros; monochrome; monocle; monocular; monogamy; monogram; monolith; monologue; monomania; Monophysite; monopoly; monosyllable; monotony.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek monos "single, alone," manos "rare, sparse;" Armenian manr "thin, slender, small."

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anti-trust (adj.)
also antitrust, 1890, U.S., from anti- "against" + trust (n.) in the "economic monopoly" sense.
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patent (v.)

1670s, "to obtain right to land" by securing letters patent, from patent (n.). The meaning "obtain a copyright to an invention" is recorded by 1822, from the earlier meaning "obtain exclusive right or monopoly" (1789), a privilege granted by the Crown via letters patent. Related: Patented; patenting.

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monopolylogue (n.)

"entertainment in which one actor performs as many characters," by 1824; see mono- "one, single" + poly- "many" + -logue.

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ear-ring (n.)

also earring, Old English earhring, "a ring or other ornament, with or without precious stones, worn at the ear," from ear (n.1) + hring (see ring (n.)). Another Old English word was earspinl. Now including any sort of ornament in the ear; the pendant sort originally were ear-drops (1720). Worn by Romanized Britons and Anglo-Saxons alike; their use declined throughout Europe in the Middle Ages but was reintroduced in England 16c., but after 17c. they were worn there almost exclusively by women.

The two groups which had formerly a near monopoly on male earrings were Gypsies and sailors. Both has the usual traditions about eyesight, but it was also said that sailors' earrings would save them from drowning, while others argued that should a sailor be drowned and washed up on some foreign shore, his gold earrings would pay for a proper Christian burial. ["Dictionary of English Folklore"]
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