Etymology
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mono- 

word-forming element of Greek origin meaning "one, single, alone; containing one (atom, etc.)," from Greek monos "single, alone," from PIE root *men- (4) "small, isolated."

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monoxide (n.)

"oxide with one oxygen atom in each molecule," 1840, from mono- "single" + oxide.

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mononuclear (adj.)

"having a single nucleus," 1866; see mono- "single" + nuclear.

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monolingual (adj.)

"speaking or using only one language," by 1939, from mono- "single, alone" + ending from bilingual, etc.

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monorail (n.)

"single-rail railway system," 1885, from French; a hybrid; see mono- + rail (n.1).

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monoculture (n.)

"cultivation of a single crop when others are possible," 1915, from French (c. 1900); see  mono- "single" + culture (n.).

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monokini (n.)

"one-piece swimsuit, usually resembling the bottom of a bikini," 1964, from mono- + bikini, on mistaken notion that the bi- element was the Greek prefix meaning "two."

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monomorphous (adj.)

"having one form only," by 1839, from mono- "one, single" + -morphic, from Greek morphē "form, shape" (see morphic). 

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monotheism (n.)

"doctrine or belief that there is but one god," 1650s, from mono- "single, alone" + -theism "belief (of a specified kind) in God, a god, or gods."

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monophobia (n.)

"morbid dread of being left alone," 1879, from mono- "alone" + -phobia "irrational fear of." Related: Monophobic.

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