1738 (n.) "one of a people of Mongolia and adjacent regions;" 1763 (adj.), from a native name, said to be from mong "brave." Related: Mongolia.
1738 (adj.) "pertaining to Mongols;" 1839 (n.) "the language of the Mongols," 1846 "a native of Mongolia;" from Mongol + -ian. As a racial classification for Asiatic peoples (including Chinese, Japanese, Turks, Vietnamese, Lapps, Eskimos, etc.) "belonging to the yellow-skinned straight-haired type of mankind" [OED] in J.F. Blumenbach's system, it is attested in English by 1825 in translations of his works.
1868, adj. and noun, as a racial designation, literally "resembling the Mongols," from Mongol + -oid. Compare Mongolian. In reference to the genetic defect causing mental retardation (mongolism), by 1899, from the typical facial appearance of those who have it. See Down's Syndrome. Such people were called Mongolian from 1866.
"powerful person," 1670s, from Great Mogul (1580s), the common designation among Europeans for the Mongol emperor of India after the conquest of 1520s, from Persian and Arabic mughal, mughul, alteration of Mongol (q.v.), the Asiatic people. As a name for the best quality of playing cards, by 1742, so called for the design on the back.
A Motion was made on behalf of the plaintiff for an injunction to restrain the defendant from making use of the Great Mogul as a stamp upon his cards, to the prejudice of the plaintiff, upon a suggestion, that the plaintiff had the sole right to this stamp, having appropriated it to himself, conformable to the charter granted to the card-makers' company by King Charles the First [Blanchard versus Hill, High Court of Chancery, Dec. 18, 1742]
"suicide flier," 1945, Japanese, literally "divine wind," from kami "god, providence" (see kami) + kaze "wind." Said to have been originally the name given in folklore to a typhoon which saved Japan from Mongol invasion by wrecking Kublai Khan's fleet (August 1281). The World War II attacks began in October 1944 off the Philippines. As an adjective from 1946.
As an aside, at war's end, the Japanese had, by actual count, a total of 16,397 aircraft still available for service, including 6,374 operational fighters and bombers, and if they had used only the fighters and bombers for kamikaze missions, they might have realized, additionally, 900 ships sunk or damaged and 22,000 sailors killed or injured. In fact, however, the Japanese had outfitted many aircraft, including trainers, as potential suicide attackers. As intelligence estimates indicated, the Japanese believed they could inflict at least 50,000 casualties to an invasion force by kamikaze attacks alone. [Richard P. Hallion, "Military Technology and the Pacific War," 1995]