"pertaining to or characteristic of a religious recluse," mid-15c., monastik, from Old French monastique "monkish, monastic" and directly from Medieval Latin monasticus, from Ecclesiastical Greek monastikos "solitary, pertaining to a monk," from Greek monazein "to live alone" (see monastery). Related: Monastical (c. 1400).
c. 1600, "pertaining to the Cistercian order of monks," with -an + Medieval Latin Cistercium (French Cîteaux), near Dijon, site of an abbey where the monastic order was founded 1098 by Robert of Molesme. As a noun, "monk of the Cistercian order," from 1610s.
c. 1400, reguler, "member of a religious order bound by vows," from regular (adj.) and from Medieval Latin regularis "member of a religious or monastic order." Sense of "soldier of a standing army" is from 1756. Meaning "regular customer" is by 1852; meaning "leaded gasoline" is by 1978; regular (adj.) in the sense of "unleaded" is by 1974.
"person devoted to religious work," especially "child dedicated by his or her parents to monastic life and raised and trained in a monastery and held in monastic discipline," 1756, from Medieval Latin oblatus, noun use of Latin oblatus, variant past participle of offerre "to offer, to bring before," from ob- (see ob-) + lātus "carried, borne," used as past participle of the irregular verb ferre "to bear."
Presumably lātus was taken (by a process linguists call suppletion) from a different, pre-Latin verb. By the same process, in English, went became the past tense of go. Latin lātus is said by Watkins to be from *tlatos, from PIE root *tele- "to bear, carry" (see extol), but de Vaan says "No good etymology available."
trademark name, 1954 (in use from 1936), from a monk of that name (1638-1715), blind cellarmaster of the monastery of Hautvilliers near Epernay, France, who was said to have discovered the advantage of corked bottles in fermentation.
Dom was a title of authority or dignity in some monastic orders, from Latin dominus "lord, master" (from domus "house," from PIE root *dem- "house, household"). From the same source comes dom, the Portuguese and Brazilian form of don (n.).
member of an irregular monastic order of priests in the Middle Ages in the Celtic lands of the British Isles, mid-12c., from Old Irish céle de "anchorite," from cele "associate, companion," sometimes "servant" (compare ceilidh) + de "of God." Perhaps an attempt to translate Servus Dei or some other Latin term for "religious hermit." Related: Culdean.
early 12c., "small monastery, subordinate monastery" (from Medieval Latin in this sense), later "small room for a monk or a nun in a monastic establishment; a hermit's dwelling" (c. 1300), from Latin cella "small room, store room, hut," related to Latin celare "to hide, conceal," from PIE root *kel- (1) "to cover, conceal, save."
From "monastic room" the sense was extended to "prison room" (1722). The word was used in 14c., figuratively, of brain "compartments" as the abode of some faculty; it was used in biology by 17c. of various cavities (wood structure, segments of fruit, bee combs), gradually focusing to the modern sense of "basic structure of all living organisms" (which OED dates to 1845).
Electric battery sense is from 1828, based on the "compartments" in very early types. Meaning "small group of people working within a larger organization" is from 1925. Cell-body is from 1851, cell-division from 1846, cell-membrane from 1837 (but cellular membrane is 1732), cell wall from 1842.
They were so called by critics who saw in them heretics pretending to humble piety, from lollen "to mumble or doze." In transferred use it became the generic late Middle English term for groups suspected of heresy, especially followers of John Wyclif. Related: Lollardism (the modern word); Lollardy (the old one).