mid-14c., monarchie, "a kingdom, territory ruled by a monarch;" late 14c., "rule by one person with supreme power;" from Old French monarchie "sovereignty, absolute power" (13c.), from Late Latin monarchia, from Greek monarkhia "absolute rule," literally "ruling of one," from monos "alone" (from PIE root *men- (4) "small, isolated") + arkhein "to rule" (see archon). Meaning "form of government in which supreme power is in the hands of a monarch" is from early 15c.
"the principle of monarchical government; preference for monarchy," by 1791, from French monarchisme, from monarchie (see monarchy).
mid-15c., monark, "supreme governor for life, a sole or autocratic ruler of a state," from Old French monarche (14c., Modern French monarque) and directly from Late Latin monarcha, from Greek monarkhēs "one who rules alone" (see monarchy). "In modern times generally a hereditary sovereign with more or less limited powers" [Century Dictionary, 1897].
As a type of large orange and black North American butterfly by 1885; on one theory it was so called in honor of King William III of England, who also was Prince of Orange, in reference to the butterfly's color. An older name is milkweed-butterfly (1871). Other old names for it were danais and archippus.
el Cid, title applied in Spanish literature to dauntless Castilian nobleman and warlord Ruy Diaz, Count of Bivar (c.1040-1099), champion of the Christian religion and the old Spanish monarchy against the Moors, 1680s, from Spanish cid "chief, commander," from Arabic sayyid "lord."
"circumscribed within definite limits," c. 1600, past-participle adjective from limit (v.). The word was used earlier in a now-obsolete sense "appointed, fixed" (1550s). Limited edition is from 1869; limited monarchy from 1640s; limited war is from 1947. As a noun in railroading, 1878, short for limited express train (1875). In British company names, Limited (abbrev. Ltd.), 1855, is short for limited company, one formed under a law limiting the liability of the members for debts or obligations incurred by the company to a specific amount, usually the amount of their capital investment.
"one who favors a republican form of government or republican principles" (or, as Johnson puts it, "One who thinks a commonwealth without monarchy the best government"), 1690s; see republican (adj.).
With capital R-, in reference to a member of a specific U.S. political party (the Anti-Federalists) from 1782, though this was not the ancestor of the modern U.S. Republican Party, which dates from 1854. In between, National Republicans was a name of the party that opposed Jackson and rallied behind John Quincy Adams in late 1820s.
c. 1300 (n.) "native or inhabitant of ancient Macedonia," from Latin Macedonius (see Macedonia) + -an. From 1580s as an adjective, "belonging or relating to ancient Macedonia." The people of Alexander the Great; they used a Greek language and were akin to the Greeks, and in Lower Macedonia, especially along the coasts where the two peoples were in contact, they were largely Hellenized, but in classical times among the Greeks (who were sensitive about identity) seem to have been generally considered foreigners, though not barbarians, due to the important differences, such as government by monarchy.