Etymology
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monarch (n.)

mid-15c., monark, "supreme governor for life, a sole or autocratic ruler of a state," from Old French monarche (14c., Modern French monarque) and directly from Late Latin monarcha, from Greek monarkhēs "one who rules alone" (see monarchy). "In modern times generally a hereditary sovereign with more or less limited powers" [Century Dictionary, 1897].

As a type of large orange and black North American butterfly by 1885; on one theory it was so called in honor of King William III of England, who also was Prince of Orange, in reference to the butterfly's color. An older name is milkweed-butterfly (1871). Other old names for it were danais and archippus.

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monarchic (adj.)

1610s, from French monarchique, from Latinized form of Greek monarkhikos, from monarkhēs (see monarch). Related: Monarchical (1570s).

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monarchy (n.)

mid-14c., monarchie, "a kingdom, territory ruled by a monarch;" late 14c., "rule by one person with supreme power;" from Old French monarchie "sovereignty, absolute power" (13c.), from Late Latin monarchia, from Greek monarkhia "absolute rule," literally "ruling of one," from monos "alone" (from PIE root *men- (4) "small, isolated") + arkhein "to rule" (see archon). Meaning "form of government in which supreme power is in the hands of a monarch" is from early 15c.

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crown-prince (n.)

"eldest son or other heir-apparent of a monarch," 1791, a translation of German kronprinz; see crown (n.) + prince

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Scutum 

constellation, added 1687 by Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius, originally Scutum Sobiescanum "Shield of (King John) Sobeski," the 17c. Polish monarch famous as the savior of Christendom for his victory over the Ottomans at the Battle of Vienna (1683). The name was later shortened. From Latin scutum "shield" (see escutcheon).

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reign (n.)

early 13c., regne, "kingdom, state governed by a monarch," senses now obsolete, from Old French reigne "kingdom, land, country" (Modern French règne), from Latin regnum "kingship, dominion, rule, realm," which is related to regere "to rule, to direct, keep straight, guide" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule").

From late 14c. as "sovereignty, royal authority, dominion." Hence, generally, "power, influence, or sway like that of a king" (by 1725). The meaning "period of time during which a monarch occupies a throne," used for dating, is recorded from mid-14c.

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sultan (n.)

1550s, from French sultan "ruler of Turkey" (16c.), ultimately from Arabic (Semitic) sultan "ruler, prince, monarch, king, queen," originally "power, dominion." According to Klein's sources, this is from Aramaic shultana "power," from shelet "have power." Earlier English word was soldan, soudan (c. 1300), used indiscriminately of Muslim rulers and sovereigns, from Old French souldan, soudan, from Medieval Latin sultanus. Related: Sultanic.

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see (n.)
c. 1300, "throne of a bishop, archbishop, or pope," also "throne of a monarch, a goddess, Antichrist, etc.," from Old French sie "seat, throne; town, capital; episcopal see," from Latin sedem (nominative sedes) "seat, throne, abode, temple," related to sedere "to sit," from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit." Early 14c. as "administrative center of a bishopric;" c. 1400 as "province under the jurisdiction of a bishop."
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potentate (n.)

c. 1400, potentat, "a ruler, lord, prince, monarch; person who possesses independent power or sway," from Old French potentat and directly from Late Latin potentatus "a ruler," also "political power," from Latin potentatus "might, power, rule, dominion," from potentem (nominative potens) "powerful," from potis "powerful, able, capable; possible;" of persons, "better, preferable; chief, principal; strongest, foremost," from PIE root *poti- "powerful; lord." 

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parliament (n.)

c. 1300, parlement, "consultation; formal conference, assembly," from Old French parlement (11c.), originally "a speaking, talk," from parler "to speak" (see parley (n.)); the spelling was altered c. 1400 to conform with Medieval Latin parliamentum.

Anglo-Latin parliamentum is attested from early 13c. The specific sense of "representative assembly of England or Ireland" (with capital P-) emerged by mid-14c. from the broader meaning "a conference of the secular and/or ecclesiastical aristocracy summoned by a monarch."

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