Etymology
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modus (n.)
"way in which anything is done," 1640s, from Latin modus (plural modi) "measure, extent, quantity; proper measure, rhythm, song; a way, manner, fashion, style," from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures." Especially in modus operandi and modus vivendi.
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modus operandi (n.)
"way of doing or accomplishing," 1650s, Latin, literally "mode of operating" (see modus). Abbreviation m.o. is attested from 1955.
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modus vivendi (n.)

"mode of living," especially a working agreement between contending parties, 1844, Latin, literally "way of living or getting along" (see modus).

Modus vivendi is any temporary compromise that enables parties to carry on pending settlement of a dispute that would otherwise paralyse their activities. [Fowler]
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gerundive (adj.)
early 15c., from Latin gerundivus (modus), from gerundium (see gerund). Related: Gerundival.
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modicum (n.)
"small quantity or portion," late 15c., Scottish, from Latin modicum "a little," noun use of neuter of modicus "moderate, having a proper measure; ordinary, scanty, small, few," from modus "measure, extent, quantity; proper measure," from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures."
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modular (adj.)

1798, as a term in mathematics, "pertaining to modulation," from French modulaire or directly from Modern Latin modularis, from Latin modulus "a small measure," diminutive of modus "measure, manner" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures"). Meaning "composed of interchangeable units" is recorded by 1936.

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turmoil (n.)

1520s, of uncertain origin, perhaps an alteration of French tremouille "mill hopper," in reference to the hopper's constant motion to and fro, from Latin trimodia "vessel containing three modii," from modius, a Roman dry measure, related to modus "measure." Attested earlier in English as a verb (1510s), though this now is obsolete.

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immodest (adj.)
1560s, "arrogant, impudent, not modest about one's pretentions," from Latin immodestus "unrestrained, excessive," from assimilated form of in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + modestus "moderate, keeping due measure, sober, gentle, temperate," from modus "measure, manner" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures"). Meaning "indecent, lewd, not modest in person or utterance" is from 1580s. Related: immodestly.
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commodious (adj.)

early 15c., "beneficial, convenient," from Old French commodios and directly from Medieval Latin commodiosus "convenient, useful," from Latin commodus "proper, fit, appropriate, convenient, satisfactory,"  from com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see com-), + modus "measure, manner" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures"). Meaning "conveniently roomy, spacious" is attested from 1550s. Related: Commodiously; commodiousness.

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modest (adj.)

1560s, "having moderate self-regard, restrained by a sense of propriety or humility," from French modeste (14c.), from Latin modestus "moderate, keeping due measure, sober, gentle, temperate," from modus "measure, manner" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures"). Of women, "not improper or lewd, pure in thought and conduct," 1590s; of female attire, "not gaudy or showy," 1610s. Of demands, etc., "not excessive or extreme," c. 1600. Related: Modestly.

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