Etymology
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moderation (n.)

early 15c., moderacioun, "quality of being moderate or temperate; a lessening of rigor or severity," from Old French moderacion (14c.) "alteration, modification; mitigation, alleviation" and directly from Latin moderationem (nominative moderatio) "a controlling, guidance, government, regulation; moderation, temperateness, self-control," noun of action from past-participle stem of moderari "to regulate, mitigate, restrain, temper, set a measure, keep (something) within measure," from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures." Meaning "act of moderating or restraining" is from 1520s.

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sophrosyne (n.)
the quality of wise moderation; Greek, "prudence, moderation in desires, discretion, temperance," from sophron "of sound mind, prudent, temperate" (see Sophronia).
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sobriety (n.)
c. 1400, "moderation in indulgence," from Old French sobriete "sobriety, moderation" (Modern French sobrieté) or directly from Latin sobrietatem (nominative sobrietas), from sobrius (see sober (adj.)). Meaning "steadiness, gravity" is recorded from 1540s.
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temperance (n.)
mid-14c., "self-restraint, moderation," from Anglo-French temperaunce (mid-13c.), from Latin temperantia "moderation, sobriety, discretion, self-control," from temperans, present participle of temperare "to moderate" (see temper (v.)). Latin temperantia was used by Cicero to translate Greek sophrosyne "moderation." In English, temperance was used to render Latin continentia or abstinentia, specifically in reference to drinking alcohol and eating; hence by early 1800s it had come to mean "abstinence from alcoholic drink."
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immoderation (n.)
early 15c., from Latin immoderationem (nominative immoderatio) "want of moderation, excess," from immoderatus "unrestrained, excessive" (see immoderate).
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unduly (adv.)
late 14c., "without due moderation; improperly, unsuitably;" see undue + -ly (2). From early 15c. as "unjustly, wrongfully."
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immoderate (adj.)
"excessive, extreme, lacking moderation," late 14c., from Latin immoderatus "boundless, immeasurable," figuratively "unrestrained, excessive," from assimilated form of in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + moderatus "within bounds, observing moderation;" figuratively "modest, restrained," past participle of moderari "to regulate, mitigate, restrain, temper, set a measure, keep (something) within measure," from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures." Related: Immoderately.
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continence (n.)

late 14c., "self-restraint, moderation," especially with regard to desires and passions, "moderation in sexual intercourse, chastity, restraint of the sexual passions within lawful bounds," from Old French continence (14c.) and directly from Latin continentia "a holding back, repression," abstract noun from continent-, present-participle stem of continere "to hold back, check," also "hold together, enclose," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + tenere "to hold" (from PIE root *ten- "to stretch").

In reference to the body's eliminatory functions, from 1915. Related: Continency.

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measured (adj.)

late 14c., "moderate, temperate" (a sense now obsolete), past-participle adjective from measure (v.) in the sense of "exercise moderation." Meaning "uniform, regular, characterized by uniformity of movement or rhythm" is from c. 1400. That of "ascertained or determined by measuring" is from mid-15c. Meaning "deliberate, restrained" is from 1802.

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foolhardy (adj.)

also fool-hardy, mid-13c., folhardi, from fol "fool" (see fool (n.1) + hardi "bold" (see hardy) hence "foolishly brave, bold without judgment or moderation." Compare Old French fol hardi. Related: foolhardiness (mid-13c.); Middle English also had as a noun foolhardiment (mid-15c.).

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