Etymology
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mitigate (v.)

early 15c., "relieve (pain); make mild or more tolerable; reduce in amount or degree," from Latin mitigatus, past participle of mitigare "soften, make tender, ripen, mellow, tame," figuratively, "make mild or gentle, pacify, soothe," ultimately from mitis "gentle, soft" + root of agere "to do, perform" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move"). For mitis de Vaan suggests cognates in Sanskrit mayas- "refreshment, enjoyment," Lithuanian mielas "nice, sweet, dear," Welsh mwydion "soft parts," Old Irish min "soft," from a PIE *mehiti- "soft." Related: Mitigated; mitigating; mitigates.

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mitigating (adj.)

"extenuating," 1610s, present-participle adjective from mitigate.

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mitigable (adj.)

"capable of being mitigated," 1670s; see mitigate (v.) + -able.

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mitigant (adj.)

"mitigating, soothing, alleviating," 1540s, from Latin mitigantem, present participle of mitigare (see mitigate). As a noun, "something that mitigates," by 1838.

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unmitigated (adj.)

"not lessened, not softened or toned down;" often in colloquial use "unconscionable;" 1590s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of mitigate (v.).

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immitigable (adj.)
1570s, from Latin immitigabilis, from assimilated form of in- "not" (see in- (1)) + mitigabilis, from past participle stem of mitigare "make mild or gentle" (see mitigate). Related: Immitigably.
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mitigation (n.)

late 14c., mitigacioun "alleviation or diminution of sorrow, pain, or anything harsh, painful, severe, etc." (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Latin mitigationem (nominative mitigatio) "a seething," noun of action from past-participle stem of mitigare (see mitigate).

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*ag- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to drive, draw out or forth, move."

It forms all or part of: act; action; active; actor; actual; actuary; actuate; agency; agenda; agent; agile; agitation; agony; ambagious; ambassador; ambiguous; anagogical; antagonize; apagoge; assay; Auriga; auto-da-fe; axiom; cache; castigate; coagulate; cogent; cogitation; counteract; demagogue; embassy; epact; essay; exact; exacta; examine; exigency; exiguous; fumigation; glucagon; hypnagogic; interact; intransigent; isagoge; litigate; litigation; mitigate; mystagogue; navigate; objurgate; pedagogue; plutogogue; prodigal; protagonist; purge; react; redact; retroactive; squat; strategy; synagogue; transact; transaction; variegate.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek agein "to lead, guide, drive, carry off," agon "assembly, contest in the games," agōgos "leader," axios "worth, worthy, weighing as much;" Sanskrit ajati "drives," ajirah "moving, active;" Latin actus "a doing; a driving, impulse, a setting in motion; a part in a play;" agere "to set in motion, drive, drive forward," hence "to do, perform," agilis "nimble, quick;" Old Norse aka "to drive;" Middle Irish ag "battle."

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sugar (v.)
early 15c., "to sweeten with sugar," also figuratively, "to make more pleasing, mitigate the harshness of," from sugar (n.). Related: Sugared; sugaring.
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soften (v.)
late 14c., "to mitigate, diminish" (transitive), from soft (adj.) + -en (1). Meaning "to make physically soft" is from 1520s; intransitive sense of "to become softer" is attested from 1610s. Soften up in military sense of "weaken defenses" is from 1940. Related: Softened; softening.
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