Etymology
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misunderstand (v.)

"understand amiss, attach a false meaning to; fail to understand," c. 1200, misunderstonde, from mis- (1) "badly, wrongly" + understand. Related: Misunderstood; misunderstanding.

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misunderstood (adj.)

"improperly understood, taken in a wrong sense," 1590s, past-participle adjective from misunderstand.

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misunderstanding (n.)

"want of understanding, mistake as to the meaning of something," mid-15c., misunderstonding, verbal noun from misunderstand.

When misunderstanding serves others as an advantage, one is helpless to make oneself understood .... [Lionel Trilling, "Art and Fortune," 1948]

Meaning "dissension, a disagreement, a quarrel" is recorded by 1640s.

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misconceive (v.)

late 14c., "to have a wrong notion of, misunderstand," from mis- (1) "badly, wrongly" + conceive. Related: Misconceived; misconceiving.

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misapprehend (v.)

"misunderstand, take in a wrong sense," 1640s, from mis- (1) "badly, wrongly" + apprehend "take hold of, grasp" physically or mentally. Related: Misapprehended; misapprehending.

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mistake (v.)

mid-14c., "to commit an offense;" late 14c., "to misunderstand, misinterpret, take in a wrong sense," from mis- (1) "badly, wrongly" + take (v.) or from a cognate Scandinavian source such as Old Norse mistaka "take in error, miscarry." Perhaps a blend of both words. The more literal sense of "take or choose erroneously" is from late 14c. Meaning "err in advice, opinion, or judgment" is from 1580s. Related: Mistook; mistaking.

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ignorant (adj.)
late 14c., "lacking wisdom or knowledge; unaware," from Old French ignorant (14c.), from Latin ignorantem (nominative ignorans) "not knowing, ignorant," present participle of ignorare "not to know, to be unacquainted; mistake, misunderstand; take no notice of, pay no attention to," from assimilated form of in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + Old Latin gnarus "aware, acquainted with" (source also of Classical Latin noscere "to know," notus "known"), from Proto-Latin suffixed form *gno-ro-, suffixed form of PIE root *gno- "to know." Also see uncouth.

Form influenced by related Latin ignotus "unknown, strange, unrecognized, unfamiliar." Colloquial sense of "ill-mannered, uncouth, knowing nothing of good manners" attested by 1886. As a noun, "ignorant person," from mid-15c. Related: Ignorantly.
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philosophy (n.)
Origin and meaning of philosophy

c. 1300, philosophie, "knowledge, learning, scholarship, scholarly works, body of knowledge," from Old French filosofie "philosophy, knowledge" (12c., Modern French philosophie) and directly from Latin philosophia, from Greek philosophia "love of knowledge, pursuit of wisdom; systematic investigation," from philo- "loving" (see philo-) + sophia "knowledge, wisdom," from sophis "wise, learned;" a word of unknown origin [Beekes]. With many spelling variants in Middle English (filozofie, phelosophie, etc.).

From mid-14c. as "the discipline of dealing in rational speculation or contemplation;" from late 14c. as "natural science," also "alchemy, occult knowledge;" in the Middle Ages the word was understood to embrace all speculative sciences. Meaning "system a person forms for conduct of life" is attested from 1771. The modern sense of "the body of highest truth, the science of the most fundamental matters" is from 1794.

Nec quicquam aliud est philosophia, si interpretari velis, praeter studium sapientiae; sapientia autem est rerum divinarum et humanarum causarumque quibus eae res continentur scientia. [Cicero, "De Officiis"]
[Philosophical problems] are, of course, not empirical problems; but they are solved through an insight into the workings of our language, and that in such a way that these workings are recognized — despite an urge to misunderstand them. The problems are solved, not through the contribution of new knowledge, rather through the arrangement of things long familiar. Philosophy is a struggle against the bewitchment (Verhexung) of our understanding by the resources of our language. [Ludwig Wittgenstein, "Philosophical Investigations," 1953]
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