Etymology
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mineral (n.)

late 14c., "substance obtained by mining," from Old French mineral and directly from Medieval Latin minerale "something mined," noun use of neuter of mineralis "pertaining to mines," from minera "a mine" (see mine (n.1)).

Meaning "material substance that is neither animal nor vegetable" is attested from early 15c. The modern scientific sense ("inorganic body occurring in nature, homogeneous and having a definite chemical composition and certain distinguishing physical characteristics") is by 1813.

As an adjective, early 15c., "neither animal nor vegetable, inorganic," from Old French mineral and directly from Medieval Latin mineralis. The sense of "impregnated with minerals" is first in mineral water (early 15c.), which originally was "water found in nature with some mineral substance dissolved in it" (later made so artificially).

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mineralogy (n.)

"science which treats of the properties of minerals," 1680s, a hybrid from mineral (n.) + -logy or else from French minéralogie (1640s). Related: Mineralogist; mineralogical.

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endomorph (n.)

1940 as one of W.H. Sheldon's three types of human bodies, from endo- + -morph, from Greek morphē "form," a word of uncertain etymology. Earlier, "a mineral encased in the crystal of another mineral" (1874). Related: Endomorphic.

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seltzer 

1741, from German Selterser (Wasser), a kind of mineral water, literally "of Selters," village near Wiesbaden in Hesse-Nassau, where the mineral water is found.

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feldspar (n.)
type of mineral common in crystalline rocks, 1785, earlier feldspath (1757), from older German Feldspath (Modern German Feldspat), from Feld "field" (see field (n.)) + spath "spar, non-metallic mineral, gypsum" (see spar (n.2)); spelling influenced by English spar "mineral." Related: Feldspathic.
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Epsom salts 
magnesium sulphate, 1770, obtained from Epsom water, the water of a mineral spring at Epsom in Surrey, England, the medicinal properties of which were discovered in Elizabethan times. The place name is recorded c.973 as Ebbesham, literally "Ebbi's homestead," from the name of some forgotten Anglo-Saxon. The mineral supply there was exhausted 19c.
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quartzite (n.)

"rock composed essentially of the mineral quartz," 1837, from quartz + -ite.

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spa (n.)
"medicinal or mineral spring," 1620s, from the name of the health resort in eastern Belgium, known since 14c., that features mineral springs believed to have curative properties. The place name is from Walloon espa "spring, fountain." As "commercial establishment offering health and beauty treatments," 1960.
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Perrier 

proprietary name of a natural mineral water from southern France, attested in English by 1904.

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porphyrite (n.)

1796 as a modern mineral name for a rock of porphyritic structure, from porphyry + -ite (2). Related: Porphyritic (early 15c., porphiritike).

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