Etymology
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million (n.)

"ten hundred thousand, a thousand thousands," late 14c., milioun, from Old French million (late 13c.), from Italian millione (now milione), literally "a great thousand," augmentative of mille "thousand," from Latin mille, which is of uncertain origin. From the start often used indefinitely for "a very great number or quantity."

In the West it was used mainly by mathematicians until 16c., but India, with its love of large numbers, had names before 3c. for numbers well beyond a billion. The ancient Greeks had no name for a number greater than ten thousand, the Romans for none higher than a hundred thousand. "A million" in Latin would have been decies centena milia, literally "ten hundred thousand." Million to one as a type of "long odds" is attested from 1761. Related: Millions.

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millionfold 

"a million times as much or many," 1721, from million + -fold.

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millionth (adj.)

"being one of a million equal parts," 1670s, from million + -th (1).

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jillion (n.)

by 1939, arbitrary coinage, modeled on million, etc. Compare zillion, gazillion.

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millionaire (n.)

"a person worth a million dollars, pounds, francs, etc.," 1821, from French millionnaire (1762); see million. The first in America is said to have been John Jacob Astor (1763-1848).

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milli- 

word-forming element meaning "thousand; thousandth part (of a metric unit)," from combining form of Latin mille "thousand" (see million).

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quintillion (n.)
1670s, from Latin quintus "the fifth" (from PIE root *penkwe- "five") + ending from million. Compare billion. In Great Britain, the fifth power of a million (1 followed by 30 zeroes); in U.S. the sixth power of a thousand (1 followed by 18 zeroes).
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trillion 
1680s, from French trillion, from Italian trilione; see tri- + million. In the U.S., the fourth power of a thousand (one thousand billion, 1 followed by 12 zeroes); in Great Britain, the third power of a million (one million billion, 1 followed by 18 zeroes), which is the original sense. Compare billion.
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mil (n.)

1721, in per mil "per thousand," from Latin mille "thousand" (see million); compare percent. As a unit of length for diameter of wire (equal to .001 of an inch) it is attested from 1891; as a unit of angular measure it is recorded by 1907.

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milliard (n.)

"one thousand million," 1793, from French milliard (16c.), from million (see million) with change of suffix. A word made necessary by the double meaning of billion. It became familiar in English in news coverage of the indemnity paid by France to Germany after the war of 1870-71.

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