Etymology
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middle class (n.)

1766, in a British sense, "class of people socially intermediate between the aristocratic and the laboring classes, the community of untitled but well-bred or wealthy people," from middle (adj.) + class (n.). As an adjective, "pertaining to the middle class," by 1857, with reference to education. Nares reports menalty as an early word for "the middle class" (1540s).

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middle age (n.)

"period between youth and old age," formerly generally understood as 40 to 50, late 14c., from middle (adj.) + age (n.). The adjective middle-aged "having lived to the middle of the ordinary human lifespan, neither old nor young" is by c. 1600.

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middle passage (n.)

"part of the Atlantic Ocean which lies between the West Indies and the west coast of Africa," 1788, in the agitation against the trans-Atlantic slave trade, from middle (adj.) + passage.

It is clear that none of the unfortunate people, perhaps at this moment on board, can stand upright, but that they must sit down, and contract their limbs within the limits of little more than three square feet, during the whole of the middle passage. I cannot compare the scene on board this vessel, to any other than that of a pen of sheep; with this difference only, that the one have the advantages of a wholesome air, while that, which the others breathe, is putrid. [Thomas Clarkson, "An Essay on the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species," 1788]
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Middle Ages (n.)
"period between ancient and modern times" (formerly roughly 500-1500 C.E., now more usually 1000-1500), attested from 1610s, translating Latin medium aevum (compare German mittelalter, French moyen âge).
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Middle East (n.)

1899; never defined in a generally accepted way. Early use with reference to British India; later often of everything between Egypt and Iran. Hence Middle-Eastern (1903).

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Mideast (n.)

"Middle East," attested from 1944 in reference to western Asia. Loosely defined (compare Middle East).

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North Star (n.)
"Pole Star, Polaris," Middle English norþe sterre (late 14c.); cognate with Middle Dutch noirdstern, German Nordstern.
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birthday suit (n.)
first attested 1730s, but probably much older. The notion is the suit of clothes one was born in, i.e., no clothes at all. Compare Middle English mother naked "naked as the day one was born;" Middle Dutch moeder naect, German mutternackt.
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lapis lazuli (n.)
"azure-stone, rich ultramarine silicate stone," early 15c., from Middle Latin lapis lazuli, literally "stone of azure," from Latin lapis "a stone" (see lapideous) + Medieval Latin lazuli, genitive of lazulum, from Arabic lazuward (see azure).
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white bread (n.)
c. 1300, as opposed to darker whole-grain type, from white (adj.) + bread (n.). Its popularity among middle-class America led to the slang adjectival sense of "conventional, bourgeois" (c. 1980). Old English had hwitehlaf.
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