Etymology
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methyl (n.)

univalent hydrocarbon radical, 1840, from German methyl (1840) or directly from French méthyle, back-formation from French méthylène (see methylene). Ultimately from Greek methy "wine" + hylē "wood." 

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methanol (n.)
"methyl alcohol," 1892 (adopted that year by the international scientific community), from methyl + -ol, suffix denoting "alcohol."
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methaqualone (n.)

hypnotic sedative drug, 1961, the name is contracted from components of the compound, methyl + quinazolinone.

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methane (n.)

"inflammable colorless and odorless gas; marsh gas," 1867, coined from chemical suffix -ane + syllable abstracted from methyl.

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Methedrine (n.)

1939, proprietary name of a brand of methamphetamine (by Wellcome Ltd.); the name is compounded from elements of methyl + benzedrine. Slang abbreviation meth is attested from 1967.

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methamphetamine (n.)

white crystalline compound that acts as a powerful stimulant to the nervous system, 1949, from methyl + amphetamine; so called because it was a methyl derivative of amphetamine.

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methadone (n.)

synthetic analgesic used as a substitute for morphine or heroin in treatment of addiction, 1947, generic designation for 6-dimethylamino-4, 4-diphenyl-3-heptanone. For origins of the syllables, see methyl + amino- + di- + -one.

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methylene (n.)

hydrocarbon radical occurring in many compounds, 1835, from French méthylène (1834), coined by Jean-Baptiste-André Dumas (1800-1884) and Eugène-Melchior Péligot (1811-1890) from Greek methy "wine" (see mead (n.1)) + hylē "wood" (which is of uncertain etymology) + Greek name-forming element -ene. So called because it was detected in wood alcohol.

"The breakdown of methylene into methyl and -ene, and the identification of the last syllable of methyl with the general suffix -yl, led to the use of meth- as a separate combining-element, as, for example, in methane, methacrylic" [Flood]. The color methylene-blue (1880) was derived from dimethylanaline.

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formaldehyde (n.)
pungent gas formed by oxidation of methyl alcohol, 1869, a contraction of formic aldehyde; see formic + aldehyde. Discovered in 1863 by German chemist August Wilhelm von Hofmann (1818-1892).
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Benzedrine (n.)
trade name of a type of amphetamine, 1933, registered as a proprietary name 1935 by Smith, Kline & French Laboratories, from benzoic (see benzene) + chemical suffix -edrine from ephedrine, etc. It is a carbonate of benzyl-methyl-carbinamine. Slang shortening benny first attested 1955.
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