Etymology
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meteorology (n.)

"science of the earth's atmosphere, scientific study of weather and climate," especially with a view to forecasting the weather, 1610s, from French météorologie and directly from Greek meteōrologia "treatise on celestial phenomena," literally "discussion of high things," from meteōron "thing high up" (see meteor) + -logia "treatment of" (see -logy).

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meteorologist (n.)
1620s, from meteorology + -ist. Earlier was meteorologician (1570s). Greek meteorologos meant "one who deals with celestial phenomena, astronomer."
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meteorological (adj.)

1560s, "of or pertaining to atmospheric phenomena," especially "of or pertaining to weather," from French météorologique or directly from a Latinized form of Greek meteōrologikos "pertaining to the earth's atmosphere, from meteōrologia, literally "discussion of high things" (see meteorology). Related: Meteorologically.

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climatology (n.)

"scientific study of climates," 1803, from climate + -ology.  In 19c., more or less equivalent to meteorology

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pentad (n.)

"set of five things considered together," 1650s, from Greek pentas (genitive pentados) "the number five, a group of five," from PIE root *penkwe- "five." Meaning "period of five years" is from 1880; meaning "period of five days" is from 1906, originally in meteorology.

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continentality (n.)

"condition of being or occupying a continent," 1863, from continent (n.) + -ality. From 1897, a term in meteorology, "measure of the difference between continental and marine climates," from German kontinentalität (1895).

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cirrous (adj.)

1650s in biology, "having or resembling a tendril;" 1815 in meteorology, from Latin cirrus "lock of hair, tendril" (see cirrus) + -ous. Also sometimes cirrose.

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cirro- 

word-forming element meaning, in meteorology, "involving cirrus clouds," and, in biology, "involving a tendril or tendrils," from combining form of Latin cirrus "lock of hair, tendril" (see cirrus).

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cirrus (n.)

1708, "curl-like fringe or tuft," from Latin cirrus "a lock of hair, tendril, curl, ringlet of hair; the fringe of a garment." In meteorology, in reference to light, fleecy clouds, attested from 1803; so called from fancied resemblance of shape.

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precipitate (n.)

1560s, in chemistry, "any substance which, having been dissolved in a fluid, falls to the bottom of the vessel on the addition of some other substance producing decomposition of the compound," probably a back formation from precipitation. In meteorology, "moisture condensed from vapor by cooling and deposited as rain, etc.," by 1832.

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