Etymology
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mestizo (adj.)

"offspring of a person of mixed blood," especially a person of mixed Spanish and Amerindian parentage," 1580s, from Spanish mestizo, Portuguese mestiço, "of mixed European and Amerindian parentage," from Late Latin mixticius "mixed, mongrel," from Latin mixtus "mixed," past participle of miscere "to mix, mingle" (from PIE root *meik- "to mix"). Fem. form mestiza is attested from 1580s. Compare mustee.

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mustee (n.)

also mestee, "octoroon, offspring of a white and a quadroon," also, generally, "a half-caste," 1690s, a West Indian word, a corruption of Spanish mestizo (q.v.).

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metis (n.)

"person of mixed parentage," especially French Canadian and North American Indian, 1816, from French métis, from Late Latin mixticus "of mixed race," from Latin mixtus "mixed," past participle of miscere "to mix, mingle" (from PIE root *meik- "to mix"). Compare mestizo.

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*meik- 

also *meig-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to mix." 

It forms all or part of: admix; admixture; immiscible; mash; meddle; medley; melange; melee; mestizo; metis; miscegenation; miscellaneous; miscible; mix; mixo-; mixture; mustang; pell-mell; promiscuous.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit misrah "mixed;" Greek misgein, mignynai "to mix, mix up, mingle; to join, bring together; join (battle); make acquainted with;" Old Church Slavonic mešo, mesiti "to mix," Russian meshat, Lithuanian maišau, maišyti "to mix, mingle," Welsh mysgu "to mix." 

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Mameluke 

Egyptian dynasty 1254-1517, originally a military unit comprised of Caucasian slaves, from French mameluk and directly from Arabic mamluk "purchased slave," literally "possessed," from past participle of malaka "he possessed" (compare Arabic malik, Hebrew melekh "king"). It is also the source of Portuguese Mameluco (n.) "mestizo, cross-breed between a white and a native Brazilian."

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Ladino (n.)
1889, a jargon of Spanish mixed with Hebrew, Arabic, and other elements, written in Hebrew characters, spoken by Sephardim in Turkey, Greece, etc.; from Spanish Ladino "Latin," from Latin Latinus (see Latin. The Spanish word also had a sense of "sagacious, cunning, crafty," on the notion of "knowing Latin." The Spanish word also appeared in American English in its Central American sense, "mestizo, lighter-skinned mixed race person" (1850).
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quadroon (n.)

by 1781, an alteration (by influence of words in quadr-) of quarteroon (1707), "offspring of a white and a mulatto," from Spanish cuarteron (used chiefly of the offspring of a European and a mestizo), literally "one who has a fourth" (Negro blood), from cuarto "fourth," from Latin quartus "the fourth, fourth part," which is related to quattuor "four" (from PIE root *kwetwer- "four").

So called because he or she has one quarter African blood. There also was some use in 19c. of quintroon (from Spanish quinteron) "one who is fifth in descent from a Negro; one who has one-sixteenth Negro blood." OED lists quarter-caste as an Australian and New Zealand term for a person whose ancestry is one-quarter Aboriginal or Maori and 3/4 white (1948).

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