Etymology
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mea culpa (interj.)

Latin expression meaning "I am to blame, through my own fault," a phrase from the prayer of confession in the Latin liturgy. For culpa, see culpable.

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exculpate (v.)
"to clear from suspicion of wrong or guilt," 1650s, from Medieval Latin exculpatus, past participle of exculpare, from Latin ex culpa, from ex "out of" (see ex-) + culpa ablative of culpa "blame, fault." Related: Exculpated; exculpating.
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culpability (n.)

"blamableness," 1670s, from Late Latin culpabilitas "guilt, culpability," from Latin culpabilis "worthy of blame," from culpare "to blame," from culpa "crime, fault, blame, guilt, error." 

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culpable (adj.)

"deserving censure, blameworthy," late 13c., coupable, from Old French coupable (12c., Modern French coupable), from Latin culpabilis "worthy of blame," from culpare "to blame," from culpa "crime, fault, blame, guilt, error." De Vaan writes that this might be from a PIE root *kuolp- "to bend, turn" (source also of Greek kolpos "bosom, lap;" see gulf (n.)). According to his sources, "The original meaning of culpa is 'a state of error' rather than 'an error committed'." English (and for a time French) restored the first Latin -l- in later Middle Ages. Related: Culpably; culpableness.

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inculpate (v.)
"to accuse, bring charges against," 1794, from Medieval Latin inculpatus, past participle of inculpare "to reproach, blame, censure," from Latin in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + culpare "to blame," from culpa "fault." But inculpable (late 15c.) means "not culpable, free from blame," from Latin in- "not" (see in- (1)) + culpare.
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culprit (n.)

1670s, "person arraigned for a crime or offense," according to legal tradition from Anglo-French cul prit, a contraction of Culpable: prest (d'averrer nostre bille) "guilty, ready (to prove our case)," words used by prosecutor in opening a trial. See culpable. It seems the abbreviation cul. prit was mistaken in English for an address to the defendant.

Meaning "a criminal, an offender" (1769) is, according to OED, "A change of sense, apparently due to popular etymology, the word being referred directly to L. culpa fault, offense."

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Magnificat (n.)

"Hymn of the Virgin Mary," c. 1200, from Latin third person singular of magnificare, from magnus "great" (from PIE root *meg- "great") + combining form of facere "to make, to do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). So called from the opening of the Virgin's hymn (Luke i.46, in Vulgate Magnificat anima mea dominum "My soul doth magnify the Lord") which is used as a canticle.

To correct Magnificat(before one has learnt Te Deum) is a 16c.-17c. expression for presumptuous fault-finding, attempting that for which one has no qualifications.

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reprimand (n.)

"severe reproof (especially one given by a magistrate or authority) for a fault," 1630s, from French réprimande (16c.), earlier reprimende "reproof," from Latin reprimenda "that is to be repressed" (as in reprimenda culpa "fault to be checked," reprimenda res "thing that ought to be repressed").

The word is thus a noun use of the fem. singular of reprimendus, gerundive of reprimere "hold back, curb," figuratively "check, confine, restrain, refrain," from re- "back" (see re-) + premere "to press, hold fast, cover, crowd, compress" (from PIE root *per- (4) "to strike"). The spelling has been influenced in French by mander "to summon."

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madam 

c. 1300, formal term of address to a lady (a woman of rank or authority, or the mistress of a household), from Old French ma dame, literally "my lady," from Latin mea domina (see Donna, and compare madonna). It became a conventional term of address to women of any degree (but chiefly to the married and matronly); also "a woman of fashion or pretension" (often with a suggestion of disparagement) by 1590s. From 1719 as "a courtesan, a prostitute;" the meaning "female owner or manager of a brothel" is attested by 1871.

The title of Madam is sometimes given here, and generally in Charleston (S. Carolina), and in the South, to a mother whose son has married, and the daughter-in-law is then called Mrs. By this means they avoid the inelegant phraseology of old Mrs. A., or the Scotch, Mrs. A senior. [Sir Charles Lyell, "A Second Visit to the United States of North America," 1849]
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