Etymology
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matron (n.)

late 14c., matrone, "married woman," usually one of rank or social respectability and mature years (old enough to be the mother of a family, whether actually so or not), from Old French matrone "married woman; elderly lady; patroness; midwife," and directly from Latin mātrona "married woman, wife, matron," from māter (genitive mātris) "mother" (see mother (n.1)).

Also (15c.) "a married female saint." Sense of "female manager of a school, head nurse in a hospital, etc." is recorded by 1550s.

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matronly (adj.)

"characteristic of or suitable to a matron," 1650s, from matron + -ly (2). From 1580s as an adverb. An earlier adjective was matron-like (1570s); matronal (from Latin matronalis) is recorded from c. 1600.

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matronize (v.)

1741, "to render matronly;" see matron + -ize. By 1807 as "to act as a mother to," specifically "to chaperone." It has been used humorously (by 1830) for "to patronize" when said of a woman. Related: Matronized; matronizing.

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goodwife (n.)
"a matron, mistress of a household," early 14c., from good (adj.) + wife (n.). As a term of civility applied to a married woman in humble life, it is a correlative of goodman. "Used like auntie, and mother, and gammer, in addressing or describing an inferior" [Farmer].
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chaperon (n.)

"woman accompanying and guiding a younger, unmarried lady in public," 1720, from French chaperon "protector," especially "female companion to a young woman," earlier "head covering, hood" (c. 1400), from Old French chaperon "hood, cowl" (12c.), diminutive of chape "cape" (see cap (n.)). "... English writers often erroneously spell it chaperone, app. under the supposition that it requires a fem. termination" [OED]. The notion is of "covering" the socially vulnerable one. The word had been used in Middle English in the literal sense "hooded cloak."

"May I ask what is a chaperon?"
"A married lady; without whom no unmarried one can be seen in public. If the damsel be five and forty, she cannot appear without the matron; and if the matron be fifteen, it will do."

[Catharine Hutton, "The Welsh Mountaineer," London, 1817]
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malapropism (n.)

"act or habit of misapplying words through ambition to use fine language," also a word so misapplied, 1826, from Mrs. Malaprop, character in Sheridan's play "The Rivals" (1775), noted for her ridiculous misuse of large words (such as contagious countries for contiguous countries), her name coined from malapropos.

When Mrs. Malaprop, in Sheridan's Rivals, is said to 'deck her dull chat with hard words which she don't understand,' she protests, 'Sure, if I reprehend anything in this world it is the use of my oracular tongue, & a nice derangement of epitaphs'—having vague memories of apprehend, vernacular, arrangement, & epithets. She is now the matron saint of those who go wordfowling with a blunderbuss. [Fowler]
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housewife (n.)
early 13c., husewif, "woman, usually married, in charge of a family or household; wife of a householder," from huse "house" (see house (n.)) + wif "woman" (see wife (n.)). Compare husband (n.). Originally pronounced "huzzif;" the full written form of it began to be used from c. 1500, representing a pronunciation shift that was made at least in part to distinguish it from its offspring, hussy. In 16c., "housewife and hussy were still realized to be same word," and it was felt "that a distinction between the two was due to the reputable matron" [Fowler]. From mid-18c.: "It is common to use housewife in a good, and huswife or hussy in a bad sense" [Johnson]. Related: Housewifely.
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matronymic (n.)

"a name derived from a mother or maternal ancestor," 1794, a hybrid from Latin māter "mother" (see mother (n.1)) + Greek-based ending from patronymic. As an adjective, "pertaining to or being derived from a mother or maternal ancestor," from 1874.

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