"a market, a place of sale or traffic, a gathering for buying and selling," mid-15c., a contraction of market (n.) probably influenced by its Middle Dutch cognate markt, from Latin mercatus "trade."
"an exchange, a mart," by 1869, a reference to the famous Ponte de Rialto of Venice and the market or exchange that stood on the east end of it and eventually expanded to cover the bridge itself. The name is contracted from Rivoalto and named for the canal (Latin rivus altus "deep stream") which it crosses.
1580s, "place of trade, mart," from Latin emporium, from Greek emporion "trading place, market," from emporos "merchant," originally "traveler," from assimilated form of en "in" (see en- (2)) + poros "passage, voyage," related to peirein "to pass through," from PIE root *per- (2) "to lead, pass over."
Greek emporos in the "merchant" sense meant especially "one who trades on a large scale, usually but not necessarily by sea" [Buck], as opposed to kapelos "local retail dealer, shopkeeper." Properly, a town which serves as the commercial hub of a region, but by 1830s American English "Grandiloquently applied to a shop or store" [Craigie]. Glossed in Old English by ceapstow (see cheap), which has hardly the same dignity.
late 14c., "warlike, of or pertaining to war," from Medieval Latin martialis "of Mars or war," from Latin Mars (genitive Martis), Roman god of war (see Mars). The sense of "connected with military organizations" (opposed to civil) is from late 15c. and survives in court-martial. Also, occasionally (with a capital M-), "pertaining to or resembling the planet Mars" (1620s). Related: Martially. Martial law, "military rule over civilians," first recorded 1530s. Martial arts (1909) as a collective name for the fighting sports of Japan and the surrounding region translates Japanese bujutsu.
kind of swallow-like bird (Chelidon urbica), 1580s (earlier in diminutive form maretinet, mid-15c.), from Old French martin, which is apparently from the masc. proper name Martin in some sense. Writers in 17c. said it was named for St. Martin of Tours (d. 397 C.E.), patron saint of France, whose festival day (Martinmas) is Nov. 11, about the time the birds are said to depart for winter. But OED says the naming "may have been purely arbitrary," and Century Dictionary says "the name has no specific meaning ...." Usually with a qualifying term: the common house-martin is so called because it nests under the eaves of houses. The American purple martin is so called by 1804.
1580s, "strap passing between the forelegs of a horse as part of the harness," from French martingale (16c.), of uncertain origin, perhaps from Old Provençal martegalo, fem. of martegal "inhabitant of Martigue," a commune northwest of Marseilles, making the etymological sense "worn in the manner of the people of Martigue;" or perhaps it is from Spanish almartaga, a word for a sort of halter or rein, from Arabic almartak, in which case it might have been influenced in form by the Provençal word. The nautical sense of "short, perpendicular spar under the bowsprit-end" is by 1794.
fem. proper name, from Aramaic (Semitic) Maretha, literally "lady, mistress," fem. of mar, mara "lord, master." As the type name of one concerned with domestic affairs, it is from Luke x.40-41. Martha's Vineyard was discovered 1602 by English explorer Gabriel Archer and apparently named by him, but the identity of the Martha he had in mind is unknown now.