Etymology
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marrow (n.)

"soft tissue found in the interior of bones," late 14c., from Old English mearg "marrow," earlier mærh, from Proto-Germanic *mazga- (source also of Old Norse mergr, Old Saxon marg, Old Frisian merg, Middle Dutch march, Dutch merg, Old High German marg, German Mark "marrow"), from PIE *mozgo- "marrow" (source also of Sanskrit majjan-, Avestan mazga- "marrow," Old Church Slavonic mozgu, Lithuanian smagenės "brain"). Figurative sense of "inmost or central part, inner substance, essence" is attested from mid-14c.

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marrowbone (n.)

late 14c., marybones (late 13c. as a surname), "bone containing fat or marrow," from marrow + bone (n.). A poetic Old English word for "bone" was mearhcofa "marrow-chamber." Later generally of any large bone. The conjecture that it is a corruption of Mary-bones, in allusion to the reverence paid to the Virgin Mary by kneeling "is absurd" [Century Dictionary]; nonetheless, marrowbones is used especially to mean "the bones of the knees" (1530s). To ride in the marrow-bone coach was one of many terms in old slang for "to go on foot."

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myeloma (n.)

"tumor composed of bone-marrow cells," 1848, from Greek myelos "marrow" (a word of unknown origin) + -oma.

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myelo- 

before vowels myel-, word-forming element meaning "marrow, spinal cord," from Greek myelos "marrow; the brain," a word of unknown origin.

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medulla (n.)

hindmost segment of the brain, 1670s, from Latin medulla, literally "marrow," also "pith of plants," a word of uncertain origin, but probably from PIE *smer-u- "marrow" (source also of Old Irish smiur, Welsh mer "marrow"), perhaps influenced by medius "middle." The word was used in the Latin senses in Middle English. Related: Medullar; medullary.

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pit (n.2)
"hard seed," 1841, from Dutch pit "kernel, seed, marrow," from Middle Dutch pitte, ultimately from Proto-Germanic *pithan-, source of pith (q.v.).
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myelin (n.)

also myeline, "soft material found in nerve tissues," 1867, from German Myelin (Virchow, 1854), from Greek myelos "marrow; the brain, innermost part," a word of unknown origin. Related: Myelitic.

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nuchal (adj.)

"pertaining to the nape of the neck or spinal cord," 1835, medical Latin, from nucha "spinal cord" (c. 1400), from Medieval Latin nucha, from Arabic nukha "spinal marrow."

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ossifrage (n.)

"sea-eagle, osprey," c. 1600, from Latin ossifraga "vulture," fem. of ossifragus, literally "bone-breaker," from ossifragus (adj.) "bone-breaking," from os (genitive ossis) "bone" (from PIE root *ost- "bone") + stem of frangere "to break" (from PIE root *bhreg- "to break").

By this name Pliny meant "the Lammergeier" (that name is from German and means literally "lamb-vulture"), a very large Old World vulture that swallows and digests bones and was believed also to drop them from aloft to break them and get at the marrow. But in England and France, the word was transferred to the osprey, perhaps on the basis of a rough similarity of sound between the two words.

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mast (n.2)

"fallen nuts or acorns serving as food for animals." Old English mæst, the collective name for the fruit of the beech, oak, chestnut, and other forest trees, especially serving as food for swine, from Proto-Germanic *masto (source also of Dutch, Old High German, German mast "mast;" Old English verb mæsten "to fatten, feed"), perhaps from PIE *mad-sta-, from root *mad- "moist, wet," also used of various qualities of food (source also of Sanskrit madati "it bubbles, gladdens," medah "fat, marrow;" Latin madere "be sodden, be drunk;" Middle Persian mast "drunk;" Old English mete "food," Old High German muos "meal, mush-like food," Gothic mats "food").

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