Etymology
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market (v.)

1630s (intransitive), "to buy or sell;" 1640s (transitive) "to carry to or sell in a market;" from market (n.). Related: Marketed; marketing.

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market (n.)

early 12c., "a meeting at a fixed time for buying and selling livestock and provisions, an occasion on which goods are publicly exposed for sale and buyers assemble to purchase," from Old North French market "marketplace, trade, commerce" (Old French marchiet, Modern French marché), from Latin mercatus "trading, buying and selling; trade; market" (source of Italian mercato, Spanish mercado, Dutch markt, German Markt), from past participle of mercari "to trade, deal in, buy," from merx (genitive mercis) "wares, merchandise." This is from an Italic root *merk-, possibly from Etruscan, referring to various aspects of economics.

The god Mercurius was probably the god of exchange. According to [Walde-Hoffmann], the god's name was borrowed from Etruscan; in principle, the same is possible for the stem *merk- altogether. [de Vaan]

Meaning "public building or space where markets are held" is attested from late 13c. Meaning "a city, country or region considered as a place where things are bought or sold" is from 1610s. Sense of "sale as controlled by supply and demand" is from 1680s. Market-garden "plot of land on which vegetables are grown for market" is by 1789. Market-basket "large basket used to carry marketing" is by 1798. Market price "price a commodity will bring when sold in open market" is from mid-15c.; market value "value established or shown by sales" (1690s) is first attested in the writings of John Locke. Market economy is from 1948; market research is from 1921.

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down-market (adj.)

"on the cheaper end of what is available," 1970, from down (adj.) + market (n.).

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stock market (n.)
"place where securities are bought and sold," 1809, from stock (n.2) + market. The original Stock Market (mid-14c.) was a fish and meat market in the City of London on or near the later site of Mansion House, so called perhaps because it occupied the site of a former stocks. Stock exchange is attested from 1773.
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black market (n.)
"unauthorized dealing in restricted or rationed commodities," 1931, from black (adj.), probably suggesting "dark, invisible" or "shady, improper" + market (n.). As an adjective by 1935. It exploded in popularity with the coming of World War II rationing.
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aftermarket (adj.)
1940, American English, of automobile parts, from after + market.
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marketplace (n.)

also market-place, late 14c., "place in which a market is held," usually an open space in a town, from market (n.) + place (n.). Figurative use is from 1942.

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marketable (adj.)

"that may be sold, salable, fit for the market," c. 1600, from market (v.) + -able. Related: Marketably; marketability.

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mart (n.)

"a market, a place of sale or traffic, a gathering for buying and selling," mid-15c., a contraction of market (n.) probably influenced by its Middle Dutch cognate markt, from Latin mercatus "trade."

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