Etymology
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manly (adj.)

c. 1200, "human; characteristic of human beings," also "possessing virtues proper to a male person" (resoluteness, independence, steadfastness, reliability); from man (n.) + -ly (1). Meaning "masculine, not boyish or womanish, proper to fighting men" is attested from late 14c. Old English had werlic "male, masculine, manly."

Manly, matching womanly, is the word into which have been gathered the highest conceptions of what is noble in man or worthy of his manhood, especially as opposed to which is fawning or underhand. Manful expresses the stanchness, fearlessness, and energy of a man, as opposed to that which is weak, cowardly, or supine. [Century Dictionary, 1895]
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manliness (n.)

late 14c., manlinesse, "quality of possessing distinctly attributes considered befitting to a man, character or conduct worthy of a man" (boldness, courage, humanity). from manly + -ness.

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unmanly (adj.)
late 15c., "degrading to a human,"from un- (1) "not" + manly (adj.). Similar formation in Middle Dutch onmamlijc, German unmännlich. Meaning "not having the qualities or attributes of a man" (as opposed to a woman or child) is from 1540s. Old English had unmennisclic "inhuman" (adj.); unmann (n.) "monster; wicked man."
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virile (adj.)

late 15c., "characteristic of a man; marked by manly force," from Old French viril (14c.) and directly from Latin virilis "of a man, manly, worthy of a man," from vir "a man, a hero," from PIE root *wi-ro- "man." Virile member for "penis" is recorded from 1540s.

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virility (n.)

"period of manhood," 1580s, from French virilité, from Latin virilitatem (nominative virilitas) "manhood," from virilis "of a man, manly, worthy of a man," from vir "a man, a hero," from PIE root *wi-ro- "man." Meaning "power of procreation, capacity for sexua intercourse" is from 1590s; sense of "manly strength" is recorded from c. 1600.

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unman (v.)
1590s, "to deprive of the attributes of a human being," from un- (2) + verbal derivative of man (n.). Meaning "to deprive of manly courage" is attested from c. 1600; that of "to emasculate" is from 1680s.
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manfully (adv.)

"with manly courage or resolution, valiantly," c. 1400, from manful + -ly (2). Old English had manlice "manfully, nobly."

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arete (n.2)
important concept in Greek philosophy, "rank, nobility, moral virtue, excellence," especially of manly qualities; literally "that which is good," a word of uncertain origin.
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virtuosity (n.)
late 15c., "manly qualities," from Medieval Latin virtuositas, from Late Latin virtuosus (see virtuous). As "skill or abilities of a virtuoso," 1670s, from virtuoso + -ity.
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man-like (adj.)

also manlike, mid-15c., "masculine, manly, having qualities proper or becoming to a man," from man (n.) + like (adj.). Meaning "resembling man in form or nature" is from 1580s.

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