Etymology
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manga (n.)

"Japanese comic books or graphic novels," c. 1984, from Japanese, "cartoon, caricature," literally "involuntary pictures." A term said to have been coined 1814 by artist Katsushika Hokusai to "convey a sense of free-flowing composition and quirky style." Also see anime.

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anime (n.)
c. 1985, Japanese for "animation," a word that seems to have arisen in Japan in the 1970s, apparently based on French animé "animated, lively, roused," from the same Latin source as English animate (adj.). Probably taken into Japanese from a phrase such as dessin animé "cartoon," literally "animated design," with the adjective abstracted or mistaken, due to its position, as a noun.

Manga (q.v.) is Japanese for "comic book, graphic novel," but anime largely are based on manga and until 1970s, anime were known in Japan as manga eiga or "TV manga." The two terms are somewhat confused in English.
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cosplay (n.)

"practice or hobby of dressing as a character from a movie, book, or video game, especially one from Japanese manga and anime," 1993, according to Merriam-Webster, from costume (n.) + play (n.), based on a Japanese word formed from the same English elements and alleged to date from 1983. Also used as a verb.

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mango (n.)

1580s, "fruit of the mango-tree," which is extensively cultivated in India and other tropical countries, from Portuguese manga, from Malay (Austronesian) mangga and Tamil (Dravidian) mankay, from man "mango tree" + kay "fruit." Mango trees were brought from Timor to British gardens in Jamaica and St. Vincent 1793 by Capt. Bligh on his second voyage. Of the tree itself, by 1670s.

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mangonel (n.)

"military engine for hurling stones," mid-13c., from Old French mangonel "catapult, war engine for throwing stones, etc." (Modern French mangonneau), diminutive of Medieval Latin mangonum, from Vulgar Latin *manganum "machine," from Greek manganon "any means of tricking or bewitching," said to be from a PIE *mang- "to embellish, dress, trim" (source also of Old Prussian manga "whore," Middle Irish meng "craft, deception"), but Beekes thinks it might be Pre-Greek. Attested from c. 1200 in Anglo-Latin.

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manganese (n.)

1670s as the name of a black mineral, oxide of manganese (used from ancient times in glassmaking for removing coloring matter), from French manganèse (16c.), from Italian manganese, alteration or corruption of Medieval Latin magnesia (see magnesia). From 1783 in English as the name of the metallic element.

From the middle of the eighteenth century the combinations of manganese were studied by various chemists, and finally, in 1774, the metal manganese was isolated by Gahn, but for years there was much confusion in regard to its specific name, and it was not until after the beginning of the present century that the name manganese (mangan in German) began to be generally adopted. [Century Dictionary, 1897]

Related: Mangano-, manganic, manganous, manganate.

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