Etymology
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mandible (n.)

late 14c., "jaw, jawbone," from Late Latin mandibula "jaw," from Latin mandere "to chew," which is perhaps from PIE root *mendh- "to chew" (source also of Greek mastax "the mouth, that with which one chews; morsel, that which is chewed," masasthai "to chew," mastikhan "to gnash the teeth"). But de Vaan suggests a semantic development from a PIE root meaning "to stir, whirl," source also of Sanskrit manthanti "to whirl round, rub," Lithuanian mesti "to mix," Old Church Slavonic mesti, Russian mjasti "to trouble, disturb." Of insect mouth parts from 1826.

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mandibular (adj.)

"of, pertaining to, or of the nature of a mandible," 1650s, from Latin mandibula (see mandible) + -ar.

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mange (n.)

"skin disease of hairy animals," especially dogs, often caused by mites, c. 1400, manjeue, maniewe, from Old French manjue, mangeue "the itch," also "hunger, appetite; itching, longing," literally "the eating," verbal noun from a collateral form of Old French mangier "to eat" (Modern French manger) "to eat," from Late Latin manducare "to chew, eat," from manducus "glutton," from Latin mandere "to chew" (see mandible).

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mastication (n.)

"the action of chewing," early 15c., masticacioun, from Old French masticacion and directly from Latin masticationem (nominative masticatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of masticare "to chew" (source of Old French maschier, French mâcher), which is probably from a Greek source related to mastikhan "to gnash the teeth," from PIE *mendh- "to chew" (see mandible), though Beekes suggests the group may be of Pre-Greek origin.

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manger (n.)

"box or trough in a stable or cow-shed from which horses and cattle eat food other than hay" (which generally is placed in a rack above the manger), early 14c., maunger, from Old French mangeoire "crib, manger," from mangier "to eat" (Modern French manger) "to eat," from Late Latin manducare "to chew, eat," from manducus "glutton," from Latin mandere "to chew" (see mandible). With Old French -oire, common suffix for implements and receptacles. In Middle English, to have at rack and manger was an image for "keep (a mistress, followers, etc.), supply with life's necessities."

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mustache (n.)

also moustache (chiefly British), "the hair that grows upon the upper lip of men," 1580s, from French moustache (15c.), from Italian mostaccio, from Medieval Greek moustakion, diminutive of Doric mystax (genitive mystakos) "upper lip, mustache," related to mastax "jaws, mouth," literally "that with which one chews" (perhaps from PIE root *mendh- "to chew;" see mandible), but Beekes says this whole group of Greek words may be of Pre-Greek origin.

Borrowed earlier (1550s) as mostacchi, from the Italian word or its Spanish derivative mostacho. The plural form of this, mustachios, lingers in English (the mustache sometimes was considered as the hair on either side of the lip, hence the use of the plural form). Slang shortening stache attested from 1985. Old English had cenep "mustache," which is related to cnafa "boy" (see knave). Mustache-cup, one with a fixed cover over part of its top, allowing one to drink without dipping the mustache, is by 1868.

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maxilla (n.)

"a jaw, a jawbone," 1670s, from Latin maxilla "upper jaw," diminutive of mala "jaw, cheekbone." "Maxilla stands to mala as axilla, 'armpit,' stands to ala 'wing'" [Klein]. Especially a bone of the upper jaw (maxilla superior) as distinguished from the mandible or lower jaw (maxilla inferior). Related: Maxillar; maxilliform.

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