1580s, "Chinese official," via Portuguese mandarim or older Dutch mandorijn from Malay (Austronesian) mantri, from Hindi mantri "councilor, minister of state," from Sanskrit mantri, nominative of mantrin- "adviser," from mantra "counsel," from PIE root *men- (1) "to think." Form influenced in Portuguese by mandar "to command, order."
Used generically for the several grades of Chinese officials; the Chinese equivalent is kwan "public servant." Sense of "chief dialect of Chinese" (spoken by officials and educated people and generally in the northern, central, and western provinces and Manchuria) is from c. 1600. Transferred sense of "important person" attested by 1907. The type of small, deep-colored orange so called from 1771, from resemblance of its color to that of robes worn by mandarins.
The distribution of the different forms of the word in Europe reflects the spread of use of the beverage. The modern English form, along with French thé, Spanish te, German Tee, etc., derive via Dutch thee from the Amoy form, reflecting the role of the Dutch as the chief importers of the leaves (through the Dutch East India Company, from 1610). Meanwhile, Russian chai, Persian cha, Greek tsai, Arabic shay, and Turkish çay all came overland from the Mandarin form.
First known in Paris 1635, the practice of drinking tea was first introduced to England 1644. Meaning "afternoon meal at which tea is served" is from 1738. Slang meaning "marijuana" (which sometimes was brewed in hot water) is attested from 1935, felt as obsolete by late 1960s. Tea ball is from 1895.
"a covered litter, generally for one person, used in India and elsewhere in the East, borne by means of poles on the shoulders of four or six men," 1580s, from Portuguese palanquim (early 16c.), from Malay and Javanese palangki "litter, sedan," ultimately from Sanskrit palyanka-s "couch, bed, litter," from pari "around" + ancati "it bends, curves," related to anka-s "a bend, hook, angle," and meaning, perhaps, "that which bends around the body." Some have noted the "curious coincidence" of Spanish palanca, from Latin phalanga "pole to carry a burden." "The final nasal appears to have been a Portuguese addition as in mandarin, and is often absent from the forms given by early travellers ..." [OED].
"that runs, capable of moving quickly," late 14c., rennynge, present-participle adjective from run (v.), replacing earlier erninde, from Old English eornende. The meaning "rapid, hasty, done on the run" is from c. 1300. The sense of "continuous, carried on continually" is from late 15c.
Running-jump is from 1914. A running-mate (1865) originally was a horse entered in a race to set the pace for another from the same stable who was intended to win; U.S. "vice-presidential candidate" sense is recorded from 1888. Running-board is attested by 1817 in reference to a narrow gangway on either side of a ship or boat; extended by 1907 to the footboards of cars and trucks.
Running dog is recorded by 1937, from Chinese and later North Korean communist phrases used to describe supposed imperialist lackeys, such as Mandarin zou gou "running dog," on the notion of a dog that runs at its master's command.