Etymology
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maid (n.)

c. 1200 (late 12c. in place names and surnames), "an unmarried woman (usually young); the Virgin Mary;" shortening of maiden (n.). Like that word, used in Middle English of unmarried men as well as women (as in maiden-man, c. 1200, which was used of both sexes, reflecting also the generic use of man).

From c. 1300 as "a virgin," also as "maidservant, female attendant, lady in waiting." By c. 1500 this had yielded the humbler sense of "female servant or attendant charged with domestic duties." Often with a qualifying word (housemaid, chambermaid, etc.); maid of all work "female servant who performs general housework" is by 1790.

Her Mamma was a famous Fryer of Fishes,
Squeezer of Mops, Washer of Dishes,
From tossing of Pancakes would not Shirk,
In English plain, a Maid of all Work.
But don't mistake me, by Divinity,
When I mention Maid, I don't mean Virginity 
[from "Countess of Fame and her Trumpeter," 1793]

In reference to Joan of Arc, attested from 1540s (French la Pucelle). Maid Marian, the Queen of the May in the morris dances, also one of Robin Hood's companions, is recorded by 1520s, perhaps from French, where Robin et Marian have been stock names for country lovers since 13c. Maid of Honor (1580s) originally was "unmarried lady of noble birth who attends a queen or princess;" meaning "principal bridesmaid" is attested from 1895. Maydelond (translating Latin terra feminarum) was "the land of the Amazons."

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nurse-maid (n.)

"maidservant employed to tend children," 1650s, from nurse (n.1) + maid.

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old maid (n.)

"spinster, woman who remains single well beyond the usual marrying age," 1520s, from old + maid. The card game is attested by that name from 1831. 

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housemaid (n.)
also house-maid, 1690s, from house (n.) + maid (n.).
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maidservant (n.)

also maid-servant, "female servant," 1520s, from maid (n.) + servant.

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milkmaid (n.)

"woman who milks cows or is employed in a dairy," 1550s, from milk (n.) + maid.

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chambermaid (n.)

1580s, "female servant who dresses a lady and waits on her in her room," also "woman who makes beds and cleans rooms," from chamber (n.) + maid.

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handmaid (n.)
"female servant," c. 1300, from hand (n.) in the sense in close at hand + maid. Compare Old English handþegn "personal attendant" and the original sense of handsome.
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bridesmaid (n.)
"young girl or unmarried woman who attends on a bride at her wedding," 1550s, bridemaid, from bride + maid. The -s- is unetymological but began to appear by 1794 and the form with it predominated by the end of the 19c. Brideman is attested from 1610s as "bridegroom;" bridesman is from 1808 as "male attendant on a bridegroom at his wedding."
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barmaid (n.)

"woman who tends a bar," 1650s, from bar (n.2) + maid.

The one employment from which Americans turn their faces in righteous horror is that of the barmaid. They consider it a degrading position, and can not understand how English people reconcile with their professions of Christianity the barbarous practice of exposing women to the atmosphere of a liquor bar at a railway station, where they must often run the gauntlet of the insolent attentions of the "half-intoxicated masher," endure vulgar familiarity, and overhear low conversation. [Emily Faithfull, "Three Visits to America," 1884]
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