Etymology
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magna mater 

a fertility goddess, 1728, Latin, literally "great mother;" see magnate + mother (n.1).

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mater- 

combining form meaning "mother," from Latin māter (see mother (n.1)).

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Magna Carta 

also Magna Charta, 1560s, Medieval Latin, literally "great charter" (of English personal and political liberty). The thing was obtained from King John, June 15, 1215; the name is attested in Anglo-Latin by 1218. See magnate, card (n.).

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Alma Mater (n.)

late 14c., Latin, literally "nurturing mother," a title given by Romans to certain goddesses, especially Ceres and Cybele, from alma, fem. of almus "nourishing," from alere "to nourish, rear, support, maintain" (from PIE root *al- (2) "to grow, nourish") + māter "mother" (see mother (n.1)). In sense of "one's university or school," attested from 1710.

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dura mater (n.)

"tough outer membrane surrounding the brain and the spinal cord," c. 1400, from Medieval Latin dura mater cerebri, literally "hard mother of the brain," a loan-translation of Arabic umm al-dimagh as-safiqa, literally "thick mother of the brain." "In Arabic, the words 'father,' 'mother,' and 'son' are often used to denote relationships between things" [Klein].

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Stabat Mater 
Latin Stabat Mater dolorosa "Stood the Mother (of Jesus) full of sorrow," opening words of a sequence composed 13c. by Jacobus de Benedictis.
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magna cum laude 

designating a diploma or degree of higher standard than average, by 1856, Latin, literally "with great praise;" from magna (see magnate) + cum laude.

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epidural (adj.)
1873, "situated on or affecting the dura mater," from epi- "on" + dura mater + -al (1). The noun meaning "injection into the epidural region" (usually given during childbirth) is attested by 1966.
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mate (v.2)

"to checkmate," c. 1300, from Old French mater "to checkmate, defeat, overcome," from mat "checkmated" (see checkmate (v.)).

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matri- 

word-forming element meaning "of or relating to a mother," also "of or relating to women," from combining form of Latin māter (genitive mātris) "mother" (see mother (n.1)).

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