late 14c., "a civil officer in charge of administering laws," also "office or function of a magistrate," from Old French magistrat, from Latin magistratus "a magistrate, public functionary," originally "magisterial rank or office," from magistrare "serve as a magistrate," from magister "chief, director" (see master (n.)). From late 17c. often meaning "justice of the peace" or other minor officials having criminal jurisdiction.
1530s, "head domestic, master or superintendent of the table in a mansion," from French maître d'hôtel, literally "house-master," from Old French maistre "master; skilled worker, educator" (12c.), from Latin magistrum (see magistrate). Sense of "hotel manager, manager of a dining room" is from 1890. Shortened form maître d' is attested from 1942; simple maitre in this sense is from 1899.
1630s, "of or befitting to a master or teacher or one qualified to speak with authority," from Medieval Latin magisterialis "of or pertaining to the office of magistrate, director, or teacher," from Late Latin magisterius "having authority of a magistrate," from magister "chief, director" (see master (n.)).
By 17c. often with a suggestion of "arrogant, imperious, domineering." Meaning "holding the office of a magistrate, proper to a magistrate" is from 1650s (see magistrate). Related: Magisterially.
It forms all or part of: acromegaly; Almagest; Charlemagne; maestro; magisterial; magistral; magistrate; Magna Carta; magnate; magnitude; magnum; magnanimity; magnanimous; magni-; Magnificat; magnificence; magnificent; magnify; magniloquence; magniloquent; Magnus; maharajah; maharishi; mahatma; Mahayana; Maia; majesty; major; major-domo; majority; majuscule; master; maxim; maximum; may (v.2) "to take part in May Day festivities;" May; mayor; mega-; megalo-; mickle; Mister; mistral; mistress; much; omega.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Armenian mets "great;" Sanskrit mahat- "great, mazah- "greatness;" Avestan mazant- "great;" Hittite mekkish "great, large;" Greek megas "great, large;" Latin magnus "great, large, much, abundant," major "greater," maximus "greatest;" Middle Irish mag, maignech "great, large;" Middle Welsh meith "long, great."
"chief magistrate of the old republics of Venice and Genoa," 1540s, from Venetian dialect doge, from Latin ducem, accusative of dux "leader" (from PIE root *deuk- "to lead"). Related: Dogate; dogeship.
late 14c., from Latin lictor "official attendant upon a magistrate," literally "binder," from past participle stem of *ligere "to bind, collect," collateral form of ligare "to bind, tie" (from PIE root *leig- "to tie, bind").
early 15c., "a judgment seat," from Old French tribunal "justice seat, judgment seat" (13c.) and directly from Latin tribunal "platform for the seat of magistrates, elevation, embankment," from tribunus "official in ancient Rome, magistrate," literally "head of a tribe" (see tribune). Hence, "a court of justice or judicial assembly" (1580s).