"broad, dark area of the moon," 1765, from Latin mare "sea" (from PIE root *mori- "body of water"). Applied to lunar features by Galileo and used thus in 17c. works written in Modern Latin. They originally were thought to be actual seas.
"a crescent or crescent-shaped body," 1690s in reference to lenses convex on one side, concave on the other, and thicker in the middle; c. 1812 in reference to liquid surfaces, Modern Latin meniscus, from Greek meniskos "lunar crescent," diminutive of mene "moon" (see moon (n.)). Related: Meniscoid; mensicoidal; mensical; mensicate.
1650s, "act of carrying out or away," from Late Latin evectionem (nominative evectio) "a carrying upward, a flight," from Latin evehere, from assimilated form of ex "out of, from within" (see ex-) + vehere "to carry" (from PIE root *wegh- "to go, move, transport in a vehicle"). Astronomy sense, "second lunar inequality," is from 1706.
ninth month of the Muslim year, period of the annual thirty-days' fast, 1590s, earlier Ramazan (c. 1500), from Arabic Ramadan (Turkish and Persian ramazan), originally "the hot month," from ramida "be burnt, scorched" (compare Mishnaic Hebrew remetz "hot ashes, embers"). In the Islamic lunar calendar, it passes through all seasons in a cycle of about 33 years, but evidently originally it was a summer month.
1705, "phase of the moon, particular recurrent appearance presented by the moon (or Mercury or Venus) at a particular time," back-formed as a singular from Modern Latin phases, plural of phasis, from Greek phasis "appearance" (of a star), "phase" (of the moon), from stem of phainein "to show, to make appear" (from PIE root *bha- (1) "to shine").
Latin singular phasis was used in English from 1660 for each of the aspects of the moon. General (non-lunar) sense of "aspect, appearance, stage of development at a particular time" is attested by 1841. Meaning "temporary difficult period" (especially in reference to adolescents) is attested from 1913.