Etymology
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luck (n.)

c. 1500, "fortune good or bad, what happens to one by chance (conceived as being favorable or not); good luck, quality of having a tendency to receive desired or beneficial outcomes," not found in Old English, probably from early Middle Dutch luc, shortening of gheluc "happiness, good fortune," a word of unknown origin. It has cognates in Modern Dutch geluk, Middle High German g(e)lücke, German Glück "fortune, good luck."

Perhaps first borrowed in English as a gambling term. To be down on (one's) luck is from 1832; to be in luck is from 1857; to push (one's) luck is from 1911. Good luck as a salutation to one setting off to do something is from 1805. Expression no such luck, expressing disappointment that  something did not or will not happen, is by 1835. Better luck next time as an expression of encouragement in the face of disappointment is from 1858, but the expression itself is older:

A gentleman was lately walking through St Giles's, where a levelling citizen attempting to pick his pocket of a handkerchief, which the gentleman caught in time, and secured, observing to the fellow, that he had missed his aim, the latter, with perfect sang-froid, answered, "better luck next time master."  [Monthly Mirror, London, September 1802]

Luck of the draw (1892) is from card-playing. In expressions often ironical, as in just (my) luck (1909). To be out of luck is from 1789; to have one's luck run out is from 1966.

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luck (v.)

"to have (good) luck," by 1945, from luck (n.). To luck out "succeed through luck" is American English colloquial, attested by 1946; to luck into (something good) is from 1944. Lukken (mid-15c.) was a verb in Middle English meaning "to happen, chance;" also "happen fortunately" (from the noun or from Middle Dutch lucken), but the modern word probably is a new formation.

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luckless (adj.)

"having no luck, suffering mischance, unsuccessful," 1560s, from luck (n.) + -less. Related: Lucklessly; lucklessness.

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potluck (n.)

also pot-luck, 1590s, "meal accepted from another and made without preparation," from pot (n.1) + luck; with notion of "one's luck or chance as to what may be in the pot." As an adjective from 1775.

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lucky (adj.)

mid-15c., of persons; 1540s, of actions or objects, "likely to bring luck;" from luck (n.) + -y (2). Meaning "occurring by chance" is 1590s. Related: Luckier; luckiest; luckiness.

Lucky break is attested from 1884 in billiards; 1872 as "failure or break-down which turns out to be fortunate." Lucky accident is from 1660s. Lucky dog "unusually lucky person" is from 1842. Lucky Strike as the name of a U.S. brand of cigarettes (originally chewing tobacco) popular in the World War II years is said to date from 1871. Its popularity grew from 1935 when the brand's maker picked up sponsorship of radio's "Your Hit Parade."

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mischance (n.)

"mishap, ill-luck, disaster," c. 1300, from Old French mescheance "misfortune, mishap, accident; wickedness, malice," from Vulgar Latin *minuscadentiam; see mis- (2) + chance (n.). Now usually "bad luck;" formerly much stronger: "calamity, disaster, affliction."

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unfortune (n.)
"misfortune, bad luck," early 15c., from un- (1) "not" + fortune (n.).
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mishap (n.)

mid-13c., "bad luck, misfortune, unlucky accident," from mis- (1) "bad" + hap (n.) "luck." It probably was formed on analogy of Old French mescheance (see mischance (n.)). Meaning "unfortunate event" is from mid-14c.

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hap (v.)
"to come to pass, be the case," c. 1300, from hap (n.) "chance, fortune, luck, fate," or from Old English hæppan.
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unlucky (adj.)
1520s, "marked by misfortune or failure," from un- (1) "not" + lucky (adj.). Similar formation in West Frisian unlokkich, Mliddle Low German unluckich. Sense of "boding ill" is recorded from 1540s; that of "having bad luck" is from 1550s; that of "bringing bad luck" is from 1580s. Related: Unluckily; unluckiness.
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