Etymology
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liquid (n.)
"a liquid substance," 1708, from liquid (adj.). Earlier it meant "sound of a liquid consonant" (1520s), following Latin liquidae, Greek hygra, applied to letters of an easy, "flowing" sound.
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liquid (adj.)
late 14c., "flowing, capable of flowing; neither solid nor gaseous," from Old French liquide "liquid, running" (13c.), from Latin liquidus "fluid, liquid, moist," figuratively "flowing, continuing," also of sounds and voices, from liquere "be fluid," related to liqui "to melt, flow," from PIE *wleik- "to flow, run."

In English, of sounds from 1630s. Financial sense of "capable of being converted to cash" is first recorded 1818, from earlier use in Scots Law (17c.) in reference to debts that had been proved (in court, etc.).
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illiquid (adj.)
1690s, from assimilated form of in- (1) "not" + liquid (adj.) in the financial sense.
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liquidize (v.)
1837, "make liquid," from liquid (adj.) + -ize. Meaning "to run through a kitchen liquidizer" is from 1954. Related: Liquidized; liquidizing.
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liquidity (n.)
1610s, "quality of being liquid," from Late Latin liquiditatem (nominative liquiditas) "liquidity," from Latin liquidus (see liquid (adj.)). Meaning "quality of being financially liquid" is from 1897. Earlier in the literal sense was liquidness (1520s).
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liquescent (adj.)
"having a tendency to become liquid," 1727, from Latin liquescentem (nominative liquescens), present participle of liquescere "to melt," from liquere "to be liquid" (see liquid (adj.)) Related: Liquescency (1650s).
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liquidate (v.)
1570s, of accounts, "to reduce to order, to set out clearly" (a sense now obsolete), from Late Latin or Medieval Latin liquidatus, past participle of liquidare "to melt, make liquid, make clear, clarify," from Latin liquidus "fluid, liquid, moist" (see liquid (adj.)). Sense of "clear away" (a debt) first recorded 1755. The meaning "wipe out, kill" is from 1924, possibly from Russian likvidirovat, ultimately from the Latin word. Related: Liquidated; liquidating.
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liquefy (v.)
early 15c., transitive, "to turn to liquid, dissolve, melt," from Old French liquefier "liquefy, dissolve" (12c., Modern French liquéfier), from Latin liquefacere "make liquid, melt, dissolve," from liquere "be fluid" (see liquid (adj.)) + facere "to make" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put").
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deliquesce (v.)

1756, in chemistry, "melt or dissolve gradually, become liquid by absorbing moisture from the air," from Latin deliquescere "to melt away," from de- (see de-) + liquescere "to melt," from liquere "to be liquid" (see liquid (adj.)). Transferred or figurative meaning "to melt away" is by 1858.

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lixiviate (v.)
"form into lye," 1758, from past participle stem of Modern Latin lixiviare, from Latin lixivium, neuter of lixivius "made into lye," from lix "ashes, lye," from PIE root *wleik- "to flow, run" (see liquid (adj.)). Related: Lixivial (1640s); lixivation (1717, earlier in French).
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