Etymology
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lingua franca (n.)
1620s, from Italian, literally "Frankish tongue." A stripped-down Italian peppered with Spanish, French, Greek, Arabic, and Turkish words, it began as a form of communication in the Levant. The name probably is from the Arabic custom, dating back to the Crusades, of calling all Europeans Franks (see Frank). Sometimes in 17c. English sources also known as Bastard Spanish.
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Linguaphone (n.)
proprietary name of a language-learning program involving phonograph records, 1908, from Latin lingua "language, tongue" (from PIE root *dnghu- "tongue") + ending from gramophone, etc.
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linguine (n.)

by 1944, from Italian linguine, plural of linguina "little tongue," diminutive of lingua "tongue," from Latin lingua "tongue" (from PIE root *dnghu- "tongue").

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lingo (n.)
"foreign speech," 1650s, probably a corruption of Latin lingua "speech, language; tongue" (from PIE root *dnghu- "tongue"), perhaps immediately as a shortening of lingua franca (q.v.), or from Provençal lingo "language, tongue," from Old Provençal lenga, from Latin lingua.
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lingual (adj.)
"of or pertaining to the tongue," 1640s, from Medieval Latin lingualis "of the tongue," from Latin lingua "tongue," also "speech, language," from Old Latin dingua, from PIE *dnghu- "tongue" (source also of Old English tunge "tongue;" see tongue (n.)). Altered in Latin probably in part by association with lingere "to lick." Earlier "tongue-shaped" (c. 1400).
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linguiform (adj.)
"tongue-shaped," 1753, from Latin lingua "tongue" (from PIE root *dnghu- "tongue") + -form.
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*dnghu- 

*dnghū-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "tongue."

It forms all or part of: bilingual; language; languet; lingo; lingua franca; Linguaphone; linguiform; linguine; linguist; linguistics; multilingual; sublingual; tongue; trilingual.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin lingua "tongue, speech, language" (from Old Latin dingua); Old Irish tenge, Welsh tafod, Lithuanian liežuvis, Old Church Slavonic jezyku "tongue;" Old English tunge "tongue; speech."

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trilingual (adj.)
"involving three languages," 1834, from tri- + Latin lingua "language," literally "tongue" (from PIE root *dnghu- "tongue"). Latin trilinguis meant "triple-tongued," and was used of Cerberus.
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multilingual (adj.)

also multi-lingual, "speaking, written in, or characterized by many languages," 1832, from multi- "many" + Latin lingua "language," literally "tongue" (from PIE root *dnghu- "tongue"). Related: Multilingually; multilingualism.

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Pali (n.)

Middle High Indian dialect used in sacred Buddhist writings (the lingua franca of northern India from c. 6c. B.C.E.-2c. B.C.E.), 1690s, from Sanskrit Pali, from pali bhasa "language of the canonical books," from pali "line; canon" + bhasa "language."

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