Etymology
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lick (v.2)

"to beat, surpass, overcome" 1530s, perhaps from figurative use of lick (v.1) in the Coverdale bible that year in a sense of "defeat, annihilate" (an enemy's forces) in Numbers xxii.4:

Now shal this heape licke up all that is about vs, euen as an oxe licketh vp the grasse in the field.

But to lick (of) the whip "taste punishment" is attested from mid-15c.

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lick (v.1)

Old English liccian "to pass the tongue over the surface, lap, lick up," from Proto-Germanic *likkon (source also of Old Saxon likkon, Dutch likken, Old High German lecchon, German lecken, Gothic bi-laigon), from PIE root *leigh- "to lick."

French lécher, Italian leccare are said to be Germanic loan words. The figurative lick (one's) lips in eager anticipation is from c. 1500. Lick-ladle (1849) was an old phrase for a (human) parasite. To lick (someone or something) into shape (1610s) is in reference to the supposed ways of bears:

Beres ben brought forthe al fowle and transformyd and after that by lyckyng of the fader and the moder they ben brought in to theyr kyndely shap. ["The Pylgremage of the Sowle," 1413]
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lick (n.)

"an act of licking," c. 1600, from lick (v.1). The earlier noun was licking (late 14c.; Old English had liccung). The meaning "small portion" is 1814, originally Scottish; hence the U.S. colloquial sense. Sense of "place where an animal goes to lick salt" is from 1747. The jazz music sense of "short figure or solo" is by 1922, perhaps from an earlier colloquial sense "a spurt or brisk run in racing" (1809). Meaning "a smart blow" (1670s) is from lick (v.2).

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salt-lick (n.)

"place resorted to by animals to satisfy the natural craving for salt," 1751; see salt (n.) + lick (n.).

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licking (n.)
"an act of licking or lapping," late 14c., verbal noun from lick (v.1); meaning "a beating" (1756) is from lick (v.2).
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boot-licker (n.)
also bootlicker, "toady, servile follower," 1846, from boot (n.1) + agent noun from lick (v.). Foot-licker in the same sense is from 1610s.
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lickspittle (n.)
also lick-spittle, "sycophant, abject toady, one who will do any repulsive thing," 1741, from lick (v.1) + spittle. Phrase lick the spittle as a repulsive act is from 1640s.
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cowlick (n.)

also cow-lick, "tuft of hair out of position and natural direction," 1590s, from cow (n.) + lick (n.). Because it looks like a cow licked your head.

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lickety-split (adj.)
1852, American English; earlier lickety-cut, lickety-click, and simply licketie (1817), probably a fanciful extension of lick (n.1) in its dialectal sense of "very fast sprint in a race" (1809) on the notion of a flick of the tongue as a fast thing (compare blink, snap).
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lambent (adj.)
of light, flame, etc., "flowing or running over the surface," 1640s, from a figurative use of Latin lambentem (nominative lambens), present participle of lambere "to lick, lap, wash, bathe," from PIE root *lab-, indicative of smacking lips or licking (source also of Greek laptein "to sip, to lick," Old English lapian "to lick, lap up, to suck;" see lap (v.1)).
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